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32. 1997 Economic Census
1 Includes electricity sales; excludes electricity generation
2 Includes sources or fuel types, not shown separately
Source: U.S. Energy Information Administration, State Energy Price and Expenditure Report, annual.
http://www.eia.doe.gov/emeu/sep/states.html The five economic sectors:
Residential Sector The residential sector is considered to consist of all private residences, whether occupied or vacant, owned or rented, including single- family homes, multifamily housing units, and mobile homes. Secondary homes, such as summer homes, are also included. Institutional housing, such as school dormitories, hospitals, and military barracks, generally are not included in the residential sector; they are included in the commercial sector.
Commercial Sector The commercial sector, as defined economi- cally, consists of business establishments that are not engaged in transportation or in manufacturing or other types of industrial ac- tivity (agriculture, mining, or construction). Commercial establishments include hotels, motels, restaurants, wholesale busi- nesses, retail stores, laundries, and other service enterprises; religious and nonprofit organizations; health, social, and educa- tional institutions; and Federal, State, and local governments. Street lights, pumps, bridges, and public services are also included if the establishment operating them is considered commercial.
Industrial Sector The industrial sector comprises manufacturing industries, which make up the largest part of the sector, along with mining, construction, agriculture, fisheries, and forestry. Estab- lishments in the sector range from steel mills, to small farms, to companies assembling electronic components.
Transportation Sector The transportation sector consists of private and public vehicles that move people and commodities. Included are automobiles, trucks, buses, motorcycles, railroads and railways (including streetcars), aircraft, ships, barges, and natural gas pipelines.
Electric Utility Sector The electric utility sector consists of pri- vately and publicly owned establishments that generate, transmit, distribute, or sell electricity primarily for use by the public and meet the definition of an electric utility. Nonutility power producers are not included in the electric utility sector. Although end- use allocations of energy consumption and expenditures follow those guidelines as closely as possible, some data are collected by using different classifications. For example, electric utilities often classify commercial and industrial users by the quantity of electricity purchases rather than by the business activity of the purchaser. Agricul- tural use of natural gas is collected and reported in the commercial sector, rather than in the industrial sector. Since agricultural use of natural gas cannot be identified separately, it remains in the commercial sector in this report. Another example is master- metered condomini- ums, apartments, and buildings with a combination of residential and commercial units. In many cases, billing and metering practices cause residential energy usage of electricity, natural gas, or fuel oil to be in- cluded in the commercial sector. In those cases, there is no basis for separating residential from commercial use. Readers are advised to con- sult the SEDR documentation for specific assumptions regarding the consumption estimates.
Where prices for an energy source and sector are not available, compa- rable prices are substituted. For example, the transportation sector motor gasoline prices are also applied to the commercial and industrial sectors. In some cases, the average of adjacent States prices is assigned to a missing State price. The documentation elaborates on these price assumptions.
Except where specified, it is not generally possible to describe the prices in this report as wholesale or retail. The prices paid in each con- suming sector are actually a combination of both sets of prices, depending on a number of closely interrelated factors, and the data re- flect the combination of prices actually paid by each sector. Almost all residential sector prices are close to retail prices, reflecting the relatively small quantities of individual purchases and the increased costs of extensive, diffuse, and multilayered distribution systems. Similarly, in the transportation sector almost everyone pays the same retail- like price for motor gasoline, regardless of volume purchased or location of purchase.
Conversely, residual fuel oil prices in the transportation sector are certainly more wholesale- like as a result of large deliveries to bulk facilities in major ports. In the same manner, most large industrial and many large commer- cial expenditures can be thought of as near wholesale, frequently involving direct access to a producer or bulk distribution facility for very large quantities. Many smaller industrial and commercial facilities pay some- thing much closer to retail prices as a result of the small quantities involved and their institutional distance from primary suppliers. Nota- ble exceptions to these relationships include natural gas and electric utilities, which typically establish fixed rates for each of several classes of service, depending on representative quantities, service factors, and distribution expenses.
These tables are based on figures supplied by the United States Census Bureau, U.S. Department of Commerce and are subject to revision by the Census Bureau.
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