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32. 1997 Economic Census

400. Toxic Chemical Releases by Industry

[In pounds. Based on reports filed as required by section 313 of the Emergency Planning and Community Right-to-Know Act (EPCRA, or Title III of the Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act of 1986), Public Law 99-499. Owners and operators of facilities that are classified within Standard Classification Code groups 20 through 39, have 10 or more full-time employees, and that manufacture, process, or otherwise uses any listed toxic chemical in quantities greater than the established threshold in the 'course of a calendar year are covered and required to report. Beginning in 1998, additional industries (listed below as new industries) were required to report]

On-site land releases Off-site
Total Total Total releases/
1987 facil- on and Total Surface RCRA Other Land on-site transfers
Industry SIC 1 ity off-site air water Total 2 subtitle C landfills treatment Surface Other releases off-site to
codes (number) releases emissions discharges landfills impound- disposal disposal
      Total (X) 23,487 7,307,337 2,053,501 231,440 4,310,816 212,957 262,408 6,524 1,379,816 2,449,111 6,863,075 444,263
    Total (X) 21,517 2,378,845 1,256,951 223,366 355,675 15,339 99,730 5,211 90,237 145,157 2,046,631 332,213
Food and kindred products 20 1,995 89,289 63,629 17,136 6,198 0 16 3,407 211 2,564 86,964 2,325
Tobacco products 21 21 3,593 3,128 160 0 0 0 0 0 0 3,288 304
Textile mill products 22 274 12,009 10,841 255 217 0 3 136 75 2 11,312 697
Apparel and other textile products 23 19 503 462 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 462 41
Lumber and wood products 24 825 34,327 32,519 83 392 28 39 24 88 212 32,994 1,333
Furniture and fixtures 25 377 17,307 17,150 1 43 0 12 0 0 31 17,194 114
Paper and allied products 26 473 229,866 185,981 21,881 17,122 956 12,374 305 3,085 402 225,013 4,853
Printing and publishing 27 225 22,455 22,302 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 22,302 152
Chemical and allied products 28 3,806 737,057 321,710 95,444 73,302 744 23,891 421 40,717 7,529 697,113 39,943
Petroleum and coal products 29 391 63,252 49,010 8,081 557 3 89 99 294 71 60,560 2,692
Rubber and misc. plastic products 30 1,824 109,669 98,645 39 894 32 802 0 7 52 99,578 10,091
Leather and leather products 31 80 4,825 2,550 76 3 0 0 0 3 0 2,629 2,196
Stone, clay, glass products 32 657 40,356 30,937 153 3,170 48 2,887 1 89 145 34,259 6,097
Primary metal industries 33 1,920 566,373 120,643 53,897 198,007 13,034 56,207 0 44,155 84,610 373,570 192,804
Fabricated metals products 34 2,897 85,884 61,897 1,280 828 84 334 0 4 406 64,005 21,879
Industrial machinery and equipment 35 1,117 19,448 14,583 52 257 14 166 23 0 54 14,891 4,557
Electronic and other electric equipment 36 1,234 29,113 16,579 2,183 395 65 168 0 1 161 19,157 9,956
Transportation equipment 37 1,296 102,499 90,513 168 408 17 368 0 0 22 91,089 11,409
Instruments and related products 38 253 12,177 9,589 1,189 75 0 74 1 0 1 10,853 1,323
Miscellaneous manufacturing industries 39 316 10,578 9,599 8 231 22 9 0 0 200 9,838 740
  0 0 0 0
Multiple codes 20-39 1,233 113,369 76,449 15,067 5,478 264 1,569 201 716 2,728 97,010 16,359
No codes 20-39 208 7,601 5,818 473 809 26 1 582 69 131 7,100 501
Combination new original industry SIC codes (X) 76 67,296 12,419 5,741 47,291 1 720 9 724 45,836 65,451 1,845
    Total (X) 1,970 4,928,493 796,550 8,074 3,955,142 197,618 162,678 1,313 1,289,579 2,303,954 4,816,443 112,049
Metal mining 10 114 3,509,907 4,552 523 3,470,524 0 17,635 32 1,153,824 2,299,033 3,508,600 1,307
Coal mining 12 55 13,326 1,458 306 11,472 0 8,163 429 2,494 386 13,326 0
Electric utilities 49 612 1,117,147 783,686 6,515 264,243 1,033 127,595 852 130,388 4,375 1,054,606 62,541
Chemical wholesalers 5169 438 1,608 1,284 12 97 0 0 0 0 97 1,393 215
Petroleum bulk terminals 5171 546 4,689 4,264 138 54 0 0 0 0 54 4,455 233
RCRA/solvent recovery 4953/7369 205 281,816 1,306 580 208,752 196,584 9,285 0 2,873 10 234,063 47,753

X Not applicable.
1 Standard Industrial Classification. For manufacturing industries, see list below table.
2 Chemicals covered for all reporting years.

Source: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, 1998 Toxic Release Inventory, EPA report 745-R-00-007. Note: The original document was changed by EPA on 11/9/2000. Those changes are not reflected here. * The Toxics Release Inventory (TRI) site is designed to provide information on toxic chemical releases including collected data, guidance documents, program planning, background, history, and, program contacts, among other things. The data included in this homepage have been submitted to U.S. EPA under the Emergency Planning and Community Right- to-Know Act for chemicals and chemical categories listed by the Agency. Submitted data include chemical identity, amount of on-site uses, releases and off-site transfers (including publicly-owned treatment works), on-site treatment, and minimization/prevention actions.

U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Prevention, Pesticides, and Toxic Substances, Office of Pollution Prevention and Toxics, Environmental Assistance Division, Toxics Release Inventory Branch

* Standard Industrial Classification (SIC) Codes

20 Food and kindred products Manufacture or processing of foods and beverages for human consumption, and related products, such as manufactured ice, chewing gum, vegetable and animal fats and oils, and prepared feeds for animals and fowls.

21 Tobacco products Manufacture of cigarettes, cigars, smoking and chewing tobacco, snuff, and reconstituted tobacco. Stemming and redrying tobacco. Manufacture of non-tobacco cigarettes.

22 Textile mill products Preparation of fiber and subsequent manufacture of yarn, thread, braids, twine, and cordage. Manufacture of broadwoven fabrics, narrow woven fabrics, knit fabrics, and carpets and rugs from yarn. Dyeing and finishing of fiber, yarn, fabrics, and knit apparel. Coating, waterproofing or otherwise treating fabrics. Integrated manufacture of knit apparel and other finished articles from yarn. Manufacture of felt goods, lace goods, nonwoven fabrics, and miscellaneous textiles.

23 Apparel and other finished products made from fabrics and similar materials Production of clothing. Fabrication of products by cutting and sewing purchased woven or knit textile fabrics and related materials, such as leather, rubberized fabrics, plastics, and furs. Manufacture of clothing by cutting and joining (e.g., by adhesives) material such as paper and nonwoven textiles.

24 Lumber and wood products, except furniture Cutting timber and pulpwood. Also, merchant sawmills, lath mills, shingle mills, cooperage stock mills, planing mills, and plywood mills and veneer mills engaged in producing lumber and wood basic materials. Manufacture of finished articles made entirely or mainly of wood or related materials.

25 Furniture and fixtures Manufacture of household, office, public building, and restaurant furniture, and office and store fixtures.

26 Paper and allied products Manufacture of pulps from wood and other cellulose fibers and from rags. Manufacture of paper and paperboard. Manufacture of paper and paperboard into converted products, such as paper coated off the paper machine, paper bags, paper boxes, and envelopes. Manufacture of bags from plastics film and sheet.

27 Printing, publishing, and allied industries Printing by one or more common processes, such as letterpress, lithography (including offset), gravure, or screen. Bookbinding, platemaking, and other services performed for the printing trade. Publishing newspapers, books, and periodicals (whether or not the establishment also prints them).

28 Chemicals and allied products Production of basic chemicals. Manufacture of products by predominantly chemical processes. (Three general classes of products: 1) basic chemicals, such as acids, alkalis, salts, and organic chemicals; 2) chemical products to be used in further manufacture, such as synthetic fibers, plastics materials, dry colors, and pigments; 3) finished chemical products to be used for ultimate consumption, such as drugs, cosmetics, and soaps, or to be used as materials or supplies in other industries, such as paints, fertilizers, and explosives.)

29 Petroleum refining and related industries Producing gasoline, kerosene, distillate fuel oils, residual fuel oils, and lubricants, through fractionation or straight distillation of crude oil, redistillation of unfinished petroleum derivatives, cracking, or other processes. (Establishments also produce aliphatic and aromatic chemicals as byproducts.)

30 Rubber and miscellaneous plastics products Manufacture of products, not elsewhere classified, from plastics resins and from natural, synthetic, or reclaimed rubber, gutta percha, balata, or gutta siak. Includes manufacture of tires.

31 Leather and leather products Tanning, currying, and finishing hides and skins, Converting leather. Manufacture of finished leather and artificial leather products and some similar products made of other materials.

32 Stone, clay, glass, and concrete products Manufacture of flat glass and other glass products, cement, structural clay products, pottery, concrete and gypsum products, cut stone, abrasive and asbestos products, and other products from materials taken principally from the earth in the form of stone, clay, and sand. (May include mining and quarrying activities operated by manufacturing establishments in this group.)

33 Primary metal industries Smelting and refining ferrous and nonferrous metals from ore, pig, or scrap. Rolling, drawing, and alloying metals. Manufacture of castings and other basic metal products. Manufacture of nails, spikes, and insulated wire and cable. Includes production of coke.

34 Fabricated metal products, except machinery and transportation equipment Fabrication of ferrous and nonferrous metal products, such as metal cans, tinware, handtools, cutlery, general hardware, non-electric heating apparatus, fabricated structural metal products, metal forgings, metal stampings, ordnance (except vehicles and guided missiles), and a variety of metal and wire products, not elsewhere classified.

35 Industrial and commercial machinery and computer equipment Manufacture of industrial and commercial machinery and equipment and computers. Manufacture of engines and turbines; farm and garden machinery; construction, mining, and oil field machinery; elevators and conveying equipment; hoists, cranes, monorails, and industrial trucks and tractors; metalworking machinery; special industry machinery; general industrial machinery; computer and peripheral equipment and office machinery; and refrigeration and service industry machinery.

36 Electronic and other electrical equipment and components, except computer equipment Manufacture of machinery, apparatus, and supplies for the generation, storage, transmission, transformation, and utilization of electrical energy. Manufacture of electricity distribution equipment, electrical industrial apparatus, household appliances, electrical lighting and wiring equipment, radio and television receiving equipment, communications equipment, electronic components and accessories, and other electrical equipment and supplies.

37 Transportation equipment Manufacture of equipment for transportation of passengers and cargo by land, air, and water. Includes motor vehicles, aircraft, guided missiles and space vehicles, ships, boats, railroad equipment, and miscellaneous transportation equipment, such as motorcycles, bicycles, and snowmobiles.

38 Measuring, analyzing and controlling instruments, photographic, medical, and optical goods; watches and clocks Manufacture of instruments (including professional and scientific) for measuring, testing, analyzing, and controlling, and their associated sensors and accessories; optical instruments and lenses; surveying and drafting instruments; hydrological, hydrographic, meteorological, and geophysical equipment; search, detection, navigation, and guidance systems and equipment; surgical, medical, and dental instruments, equipment, and supplies; ophthalmic goods; photographic equipment and supplies; watches and clocks.

39 Miscellaneous manufacturing industries Manufacture of products not classified in any other major manufacturing group. Includes jewelry, silverware, and plated ware; musical instruments; dolls, toys, games, and sporting and athletic goods; pens, pencils, and artists materials; buttons, costume novelties, and miscellaneous notions; brooms and brushes; caskets; and other miscellaneous products.

An Explanation of On-site Releases

A release is a discharge of a toxic chemical to the environment. On-site releases include emissions to the air, discharges to bodies of water, releases at the facility to land, as well as releases into underground injection wells. Releases are reported to TRI by media type. On-site releases are reported in Section 5 of Form R. Air Emissions. Releases to air are reported either as point source or fugitive emissions. Point source emissions, also referred to as stack emissions, occur through confined air streams, such as stacks, vents, ducts, or pipes. Fugitive emissions are all releases to air that are not released through a confined air stream. Fugitive emissions include equipment leaks, evaporative losses from surface impoundments and spills, and releases from building ventilation systems.

Surface Water Discharges. Releases to water include discharges to streams, rivers, lakes, oceans, and other bodies of water. This includes releases from contained sources, such as industrial process outflow pipes or open trenches. Releases due to runoff, including storm water runoff, are also reportable to TRI.

Underground Injection. Underground injection is the subsurface emplacement of fluids through wells. TRI chemicals associated with manufacturing, the petroleum industry, mining, commercial and service industries, and federal and municipal government-related activities may be injected into Class I, II, III, IV, or V wells, if they do not endanger underground sources of drinking water (USDW), public health, or the environment. The different types of authorized injection activities are: Class I industrial, municipal, and manufacturing wells inject fluids into deep, confined, and isolated formations below potable water supplies. Class II oil- and gas-related wells re-inject produced fluids for disposal, enhanced recovery of oil, or hydrocarbon storage. Class III wells are associated with the solution mining of minerals. Class IV wells may inject hazardous or radioactive fluids directly or indirectly into USDW, only if the injection is part of an authorized CERCLA/RCRA clean-up operation. Class V wells, which include all types of injection wells that do not fall under I-IV, may inject only if they do not endanger USDW, public health, or the environment. Class V wells are, generally, shallow drainage wells, such as floor drains connected to dry wells or drain fields. Beginning with the 1996 reporting year, facilities separately report amounts injected into Class I wells and into all other wells.

On-site Land Releases. On-site releases to land occur within the boundaries of the reporting facility. Releases to land include disposal of toxic chemicals in landfills (in which wastes are buried), land treatment/application farming (in which a waste containing a listed chemical is applied to or incorporated into soil), surface impoundments (which are uncovered holding areas used to volatilize and/or settle waste materials), and other land disposal methods (such as waste piles) or releases to land (such as spills or leaks). Beginning with the 1996 reporting year, facilities separately report amounts released to RCRA subtitle C landfills from amounts released to other on-site landfills.

An Explanation of Off-site Releases (Transfers Off-site to Disposal)

An off-site release is a discharge of a toxic chemical to the environment that occurs as a result of a facilitys transferring a waste containing a TRI chemical off-site to disposal, as reported in Section 6 of Form R. Certain other types of transfers are also categorized as off-site releases because, except for location, the outcome of transferring the chemical off-site is the same as releasing it on-site.

Transfers to Disposal. Toxic chemicals in waste that are transferred off-site for disposal generally are either released to land at an off-site facility or are injected underground. (See discussion of on-site releases to land and underground injection for a description of these release types.)

Storage Only. Generally, a toxic chemical is sent off-site for storage because there is no known disposal method. One example is toxic chemicals in mixed hazardous and radioactive waste. EPA considers this an off-site release because this method is being used as a form of disposal and the toxic chemical will remain there indefinitely.

Unknown. The unknown category of disposal indicates that a facility is not aware of the type of waste management used for the toxic chemical that is sent off-site. Therefore, EPA has categorized this method as the lowest type of waste management (environmentally least desirable) and has included it as a type of disposal for reporting purposes. Thus, it is considered to be an off-site release.

Metals and Metal Compounds. The transfer of metals and metal compounds to solidification/stabilization and to wastewater treatment (either publicly or privately owned treatment works) also result in releases and are classified as off-site releases (transfers to disposal).

An Explanation of On-site Waste Management

On-site waste management activities are reported in Section 8 of Form R. These amounts do not include one-time events such as accidental releases or remediation (clean-up).

Recycled On-site. This is the quantity of the toxic chemical recovered at the facility and made available for further use. To avoid double-counting, the amount reported represents the amount exiting the recycling unit. It is not the quantity that entered an on-site recycling or recovery operation. For example, 3,000 pounds of a listed chemical enters a recycling operation. Of this, 500 pounds of the chemical are in residues from the recycling operation that are subsequently sent off-site for disposal. The quantity reported as recycled on-site would be 2,500 pounds.

Used for Energy Recovery On-site. This is the quantity of the toxic chemical that was combusted in some form of energy recovery device, such as a furnace (including kilns) or boiler. The toxic chemical should have a heating value high enough to sustain combustion. To avoid double-counting, the amount reported represents the amount destroyed in the combustion process, not the amount that entered the energy recovery unit. For example, 100,000 pounds of toluene entered a boiler that, on average, combusted 98% of the toluene. Any remaining toluene was discharged to air. A total of 98,000 pounds is reported as combusted for energy recovery (the remaining 2,000 pounds is reported as released).

Treated On-site. This is the quantity of the toxic chemical destroyed in on-site waste treatment operations, not the amount that entered a treatment operation. For example, if 100,000 pounds of benzene were combusted in an incinerator that destroyed 99% of the benzene, the facility would report 99,000 pounds as treated on-site (the remaining 1,000 pounds would be reported as released).


These tables are based on figures supplied by the United States Census Bureau, U.S. Department of Commerce and are subject to revision by the Census Bureau.

Copyright © 2006 Photius Coutsoukis and Information Technology Associates, all rights reserved.