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1 Total may include offenders for whom offense category could not be determined.
2 Includes offenses not shown separately.
3 Excludes tax fraud.
4 Includes tax fraud.
Source: U.S. Bureau of Justice Statistics, Compendium of Federal Justice Statistics, annual.
The data are derived from the Bureau of Justice Statistics (BJS) Federal Justice Statistics database. The database is constructed from source files provided by the Executive Office for U.S. Attorneys, the Administrative Office of the United States Courts (AO), the Pretrial Services Agency, the United States Sentencing Commission, and the Federal Bureau of Prisons. Data represent the calendar year(s) indicated in each table.
Records in the Federal Justice Statistics database are matched according to a statistically weighted combination of names, other personal identifiers, dates of court appearances, types of offenses, and other relevant information contained in the files. Using the matched data files, it is possible to combine information about two or more stages of the processing of a criminal matter or case, from the prosecutor's decision of whether to file a criminal case, through adjudication, and, if the defendant is convicted, through prison and/or supervised release.
The unit of analysis is a combination of a person (or corporation) and a matter or case. For example, if a single person is involved in three different criminal cases during the time period specified in the table, he or she is counted three times in the tabulation. Similarly, if a single criminal case involves a corporate defendant and four individual defendants, it is counted five times in the tabulation.
The offense classifications in the tables are based on the classification system used by the AO. Specific offenses in the AO classification are combined to form the BJS categories in the tables. These categories are designed to be as consistent as possible with BJS publications on State criminal justice systems. Offense categories for tables 5.25, 5.26, 6.43, and 6.68 are based on offense designations by the Bureau of Prisons. They are similar to the BJS categories but may not be directly comparable.
Where more than one offense is charged or adjudicated, the most serious offense, the one that may or did result in the most severe sentence, is used in the classification. Prisoners are classified according to the offense that bears the longest incarceration sentence. The offense description may change as a case goes through the criminal justice process. Tables indicate whether charged or adjudicated offenses are used.
Tables from the Federal Criminal Case Processing report describing the number and rate of prosecutions and the results of magistrate proceedings include only those cases handled by U.S. attorneys and those matters in which U.S. attorneys provide local assistance to Department of Justice attorneys in the litigating divisions. Data describing the number and rate of convictions, sentencing patterns, incarceration rates, and lengths of sentences imposed and served, include all cases regardless of the prosecuting agency.
In 1991, the Department of Justice provided U.S. attorneys with lists of cases shown in the data as having remained inactive for long periods of time, and directed that resolutions be reported to the Docket and Reporting system, if possible. As a result, many cases which had been shown as pending were reported to be declined for prosecution, or were shown as resolved by U.S. magistrates. Statistics for 1991 were substantially affected by these recordkeeping activities.
The availability of particular items of information is affected by the data source. Data on prosecutors' decisions prior to court filing are provided for cases investigated by U.S. attorneys, but not for those handled by the Criminal Division of the U.S. Department of Justice. Criminal Division cases enter the data base once they are filed in U.S. District Court, however. Many items of social and demographic information come from presentence investigation records or supervision records, and are available only for arrested defendants who were convicted and/or began serving a sentence involving supervised release. (This particularly affects sex, race, ethnicity, education, and occupational information.)
Sentencing figures differ from statistics published by the Administrative Office of the United States Courts for the average "regular" sentence imposed. "Regular" sentences exclude two categories of offenders included in the BJS calculations: offenders receiving a "split" sentence (5 days through 6 months followed by probation) and offenders sentenced under 18 U.S.C. 4205(b)(1) and (b)(2) (where a maximum term is set accompanied by no or a small minimum). Time served in prison is the number of months from the prisoner's arrival into jurisdiction of the Bureau of Prisons until first release from prison, plus any jail time served and credited. The calculation is the same as that currently used by the Bureau of Prisons. Because other publications may include different groups of prisoners, calculate time served differently, or use a different offense classification, these data may differ from estimates of time served in previous publications by the Bureau of Prisons or in publications based on other data sources.
Time served reported in table 5.26 is not directly comparable to that in previous Federal Criminal Case Processing and the Compendium of Federal Justice Statistics reports. The methodology in this report uses new information to identify prison commitment dates and account for jail credits. In previous reports jail credits were overestimated in some cases.
These data are designed to permit the user to make valid comparisons of numbers within each table and to compare percentage rates across tables. The total numbers of subjects that are based on records linked between two files are generally less than the total number of records in either source file. Accordingly, comparisons of absolute numbers across two or more tables, or between these data and other data sources, are not necessarily valid. * Definitions of terms
Definitions of offense categories describe all offenses included in each category.
Drug offenses--possessing or trafficking in (distributing, importing, or manufacturing) controlled substances. Also furnishing of fraudulent or false information concerning prescriptions as well as any other unspecified drug-related offense.
Embezzlement--fraudulently misapplying property by a person to whom such property has been entrusted or into whose hands it has lawfully come where offense is committed by bank officers or employees; officers or employees of the Postal Service; officers of lending, credit, or insurance institutions; any officer or employee of a corporation or association engaged in commerce as a common carrier; court officers of the U.S. courts; or officers or employees of the United States. Embezzling, stealing, or knowingly converting to one's own use or the use of another or without authority selling, conveying, or disposing of any money, property, records, or thing of value to the United States or any department thereof.
Forgery--falsely and with intent to defraud, making, counterfeiting, altering, or possessing with intent to pass off as genuine any U.S. Postal Service money order; postmarking stamp or impression; obligation or security of the United States; foreign obligation, security, or bank note; contractors' bond, bid, or public record; seal of a court or any department or agency of the U.S. Government; the signature of a judge or court officer; ships' papers; documents on entry of vessels; deed; power of attorney; customs matters; bond of distilleries; military or naval discharge certificate; coin or bar; and so forth. Also making, possessing, selling, or printing plates or stones for counterfeiting obligations or securities and receiving, possessing, concealing, selling, or disposing of any falsely made securities, tax stamps, or pledges that have crossed a State or the U.S. boundary after being stolen or unlawfully converted.
Fraud--unlawfully depriving a person of his or her property or legal rights through intentional misrepresentation of fact or deceit other than forgery or counterfeiting. Includes violations of statutes pertaining to lending and credit institutions, the Postal Service, interstate wire, radio, television, veterans benefits, allotments, bankruptcy, marketing agreements, commodity credit, the Securities and Exchange Commission, railroad retirement, unemployment, Social Security, false personation, citizenship, passports, conspiracy, and claims and statements, excluding tax fraud. The category excludes fraud involving tax violations that are shown in a separate category under "Public-order, other offenses."
Immigration offenses--offenses involving illegal entrance into the United States, illegally reentering after being deported, willfully failing to deport when so ordered, or willfully remaining beyond days allowed on conditional permit. Falsely representing oneself to be a citizen of the United States or counterfeiting any visa, permit, or other document to enter the United States as well as violating any of the provisions for travel of citizens or aliens during war or national emergency. Also bringing in or harboring any aliens not duly admitted by an immigration officer.
Larceny--taking and carrying away with intent to steal any personal property of another, within the special maritime and territorial jurisdiction of the United States. Stealing, possessing, converting to one's own use, or illegally selling or disposing of anything of value to the United States or any of its departments or agencies or any property made or being made under contract for the United States or any of its departments or agencies. Stealing anything of value (in excess of $100) from a bank, the Postal Service, or any interstate or Foreign shipments by carrier. Receiving or possessing stolen property or pirate property. Stealing or obtaining by fraud any funds, assets, or property that are the subject of a grant, contract, or other form of assistance, whether received directly or indirectly, from the Law Enforcement Assistance Administration or that belong to or are entrusted to the custody of an Indian tribal organization. This offense category excludes the transportation of stolen property.
Most serious offense--the offense with the greatest potential penalty. For Federal prisoners, the offense with the longest term of incarceration actually imposed.
Offense--violation of U.S. criminal law. Where more than one offense is charged, the offense with the greatest potential penalty is reported.
Other property offenses--offenses that involve the destruction of property moving in inter-State or foreign commerce in the possession of a common or contract carrier. The malicious destruction of Government property, or injury to U.S. postal property such as mailboxes or mailbags. Trespassing on timber and Government lands is also included in this category of offenses.
Other public-order offenses--violations of laws pertaining to abortion; bigamy; disorderly conduct on the U.S. Capitol grounds; civil disorder; hunting, trapping, or fishing on Indian lands or military areas and zones; and obscene or harassing telephone calls. Included in "public-order, non-regulatory offenses."
Other regulatory offenses--violations of civil rights, election laws, the Communication Act (including wire tapping and wire interception), contempt, laws regarding congressional contempt, custom laws (except narcotics and liquor), importation of injurious animals and birds, interstate commerce (the Connally Act, Hot Oil Act, transportation or importation of prison-made goods, and the Railroad and Transportation Act), maritime and shipping laws, laws regarding stowaways, the Federal Boat Safety Act of 1971, the Federal Water Pollution Control Act, U.S. postal laws (excluding injury to postal property), intimidation of witness laws, aircraft regulations, explosives (except in vessels), the Gold Acts, train wrecking, and any other regulatory offenses not listed above.
Possession--acquiring a controlled substance by misrepresentation or fraud, attempting or conspiring to possess, or simple possession of a controlled substance in schedules I-V (as defined by 21 U.S.C. 812). Also possession of a controlled substance in schedule I or II or a narcotic drug in schedule III or IV on board a vessel of the United States or vessels within custom waters of the United States or by any citizen of the United States on board a vessel. Possessing any punch, die, plate, stone, or any other thing designed to reproduce the label upon any drug or container is an offense under this category. Distributing a small amount of marijuana for no remuneration is treated as simple possession and, therefore, is included in this offense category. Property offenses, fraudulent--property offenses involving the elements of deceit or intentional misrepresentation. Specifically includes embezzlement, fraud (excluding tax fraud), forgery, and counterfeiting.
Property offenses, non-fraudulent-- offenses against property: burglary, larceny, motor vehicle theft, arson, transportation of stolen property, and other property offenses (destruction of property and trespassing). These offenses are termed "non-fraudulent" only for the purpose of distinguishing them from the category "property offenses, fraudulent," above.
Public-order, non-regulatory offenses--offenses concerning weapons; immigration; tax law violations (tax fraud); bribery; perjury; national defense; escape; racketeering and extortion; gambling; liquor; mailing or transporting of obscene materials; traffic; migratory birds; conspiracy, aiding and abetting, and jurisdictional offenses; and "other public-order offenses." These offenses are termed "non-regulatory" only for the purpose of distinguishing them from the
Public-order, regulatory offenses--violations of regulatory laws and regulations in agriculture, antitrust, labor law, food and drug, motor carrier, and other regulatory offenses that are not specifically listed in the category "public-order, non-regulatory offenses" above.
Sentence--sanction imposed on a convicted offender. For sentences to incarceration, the maximum time the offender may be held in custody is reported.
Tax law violations--tax fraud offenses such as income tax fraud; evading or defeating tax; willful failure to file; fraudulently withholding an exemption certificate or failing to supply information; counterfeiting any stamps with intent to defraud the collection or payment of tax; willful failure to collect or pay tax; putting fraudulent or false statements on tax returns; failure to obey summons to produce any papers concerning taxes; preparers of returns disclosing or using any information for any purpose other than to assist in preparing returns; failing to furnish receipts for employees of tax withheld; failing to furnish information relating to certain trusts, annuity, and bond purchase plans; and not obtaining a license for a business that makes a profit from foreign items. Also included in this offense category are violations of excise and wagering tax laws and other laws from the Internal Revenue Service title.
Trafficking--importing any controlled substance in schedule I, II, III, IV, or V (as defined by 21 U.S.C. 812). Manufacturing, distributing, selling, or possessing with intent to manufacture, distribute, or sell a controlled substance or a counterfeit substance. Exporting any controlled substance in schedules I-V. Manufacturing or distributing a controlled substance in schedule I or II for purposes of unlawful importation. Making or distributing any punch, die, plate, stone, or any other thing designed to reproduce the label upon any drug or container or removing or obliterating the label or symbol of any drug or container. Obtaining a prescription of a controlled substance in schedule III or IV without a written or oral prescription. Distributing for reasons other than medical a controlled substance in schedule V. Illegally crossing the border if the individual is addicted to or using drugs or has been convicted of any violation of narcotics or marijuana laws.
Violent offenses--threatening, attempting, or actually using physical force against a person. Includes murder and nonnegligent manslaughter, negligent manslaughter, assault, robbery, rape, other sex offenses (some of which may be nonviolent), kidnapping, and threats against the President. (See specific offenses.)
Weapons violations--violations of any of the provisions of sections 922 and 923 of title 18 concerning the manufacturing, importing, possessing, receiving, and licensing of firearms and ammunition. Manufacturing, selling, possessing, or transporting (within any territory or possession of the United States, within Indian country, or within the special maritime and territorial jurisdiction of the United States) any switchblade knife. Engaging in importing, manufacturing, or dealing in firearms if not registered with the secretary in the Internal Revenue Service District in which the business is conducted or not having paid a special occupational tax. Carrying on the U.S. Capitol grounds or within U.S. Capitol buildings any firearm, dangerous weapon, explosive, or incendiary device. *
These tables are based on figures supplied by the United States Census Bureau, U.S. Department of Commerce and are subject to revision by the Census Bureau.
Copyright © 2006 Photius Coutsoukis and Information Technology Associates, all rights reserved.