Open menu Close menu Open Search Close search Open sharebox Close sharebox
uscensus banner

Custom Search

1. Population
2. Vital Statistics
3. Health and Nutrition
4. Education
5. Law Enforcement, Courts
and Prisons
6. Geography and Environment
7. Parks, Recreation, Travel
8. Elections
9. State and Local Government
Finances and Employment
10. Federal Government
Finances and Employment
11. National Defense and
Veterans Affairs
12. Social Insurance and Human
13. Labor Force, Employment,
and Earnings
14. Income, Expenditures, and
15. Prices
16. Banking, Finance, and
17. Business Enterprise
18. Communications and
Information Technology
19. Energy
20. Science and Technology
21. Transportation - Land
22. Transportation - Air
and Water
23. Agriculture
24. Natural Resources
25. Construction and Housing
26. Manufactures
27. Domestic Trade and
28. Foreign Commerce and Aid
29. Outlying Areas
30. Comparative International
31. Industrial Outlook
32. 1997 Economic Census

1315. U.S. Businesses Acquired or Established by Foreign Direct Investors -- Investment Outlays, by Industry of U.S. Business Enterprise and Country of Ultimate Beneficial Owner

[In millions of dollars (65,932 represents $65,932,000,000).Foreign direct investment is the ownership or control, directly orindirectly, by one foreign individual branch, partnership, association,association, trust, corporation, or government of 10 percent or more of the voting securities of a U.S. business enterprise or an equivalent interest in an unincorporated one. Data represent number and full cost of acquisitions of existing U.S. business enterprises, including business segments or operating units of existing U.S. businessenterprises and establishments of new enterprises. Investments may be made by the foreign direct investor itself, or indirectly by an existing U.S. affiliate of the foreign direct investor. Covers investments in U.S. business enterprises with assets of over $1 million, or ownership of 200 acres of U.S. land]

Industry Investment outlays Investment outlays
country 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999
    Total 65,932 25,538 15,333 26,229 45,626 57,195 79,929 69,708 215,256 (NA)
Petroleum .. 1,141 702 463 882 469 1,520 1,059 762 (D) (NA)
Manufacturing 23,898 11,461 6,014 11,090 21,218 26,643 27,835 19,603 89,739 (NA)
Wholesale trade 1,676 623 698 837 2,156 1,168 4,746 2,612 3,266 (NA)
Retail trade 1,250 1,605 256 1,495 1,542 2,838 2,988 435 1,938 (NA)
Depository institutions 1 897 482 529 958 2,026 2,301 1,944 3,547 1,563 (NA)
Finance, except
  depository institutions 1 2,121 2,199 797 1,599 2,195 7,837 8,676 7,019 16,607 (NA)
Insurance 2,093 2,102 291 1,105 450 654 4,688 8,526 4,709 (NA)
Real estate 7,771 3,823 2,161 1,883 2,647 2,996 4,175 4,119 6,144 (NA)
Services 19,369 2,256 2,023 4,162 7,163 5,881 15,292 12,187 10,099 (NA)
Other .. 5,716 284 2,101 2,218 5,760 5,359 8,528 10,898 (D) (NA)
Canada 3,430 3,454 1,351 3,797 4,128 8,029 9,700 11,755 22,635 11,388
Europe 36,011 13,994 8,344 16,845 31,920 38,195 49,427 44,014 170,173 205,150
  France 10,217 4,976 406 1,249 1,404 1,129 6,021 2,578 14,493 24,579
  Germany 3 2,363 1,922 1,964 2,841 3,328 13,117 12,858 6,464 39,873 24,393
  Netherlands 2,247 1,661 1,331 2,074 1,537 1,061 6,476 10,244 19,009 26,896
  Switzerland . 3,905 1,327 1,259 804 5,044 7,533 4,910 6,745 4,525 7,119
  United Kingdom 13,096 2,169 2,255 8,238 17,261 9,094 14,757 11,834 84,995 110,115
  Other Europe 4,183 1,939 1,129 1,639 3,346 6,261 4,405 6,149 7,278 12,048
Latin America and other
Western Hemisphere 796 375 1,438 874 1,352 1,550 1,790 924 11,354 34,013
  South and Central America 399 108 1,152 527 (D) 1,283 (D) 166 920 1,377
  Other Western Hemisphere 397 267 286 347 (D) 267 (D) 758 10,433 32,636
Africa (D) (D) (D) (D) (D) (D) (D) (D) 212 (D)
Middle East 472 1,006 238 1,308 (D) 447 (D) 847 2,810 546
Asia and Pacific 23,170 6,560 3,716 3,004 5,263 8,688 12,751 11,786 7,329 11,502
  Australia 1,412 251 164 129 1,522 2,270 2,222 7,600 (D) (D)
  Japan 19,933 5,357 2,921 2,065 2,715 3,602 8,813 2,326 4,862 8,048
  Other Asia and Pacific 1,825 952 631 810 1,026 2,816 1,716 1,860 (D) (D)
United States /4.. (D) (D) (D) (D) 201 (D) (D) (D) 743 (D)

(D) Suppressed to avoid disclosure of data of individual companies.
1 Prior to 1992, "depository institutions" excludes, and "finance, depository institutions" includes, savings institutions and credit unions.Beginning with 1992, savings institutions and credit unions have been reclassified from "finance, except depository institutions"to "depository institutions".
2 For investments in which more than one investor participated, each investor and each investor's outlays areclassified by country of each ultimate beneficial owner.
3 Prior to 1990, this line includes data only for the Federal Republic of Germany. Beginning in 1990, this linealso includes the former German Democratic Republic (GDR). This change has no effect on the data because, prior to 1991,there were no U.S. affiliates of the former GDR.
4 The UBO (ultimate beneficial owner) is that person, proceeding up a U.S. affiliate 's ownership chain, beginning with and including the foreign parent, that is not owned more than 50 percent by another person. The foreignparent is the first foreign person in the affiliate's ownership chain. Unlike the foreign parent,the UBO of an affiliate may be located in the United States.

Source: U.S. Bureau of Economic Analysis, Survey of Current Business, June 2000, and previous June issues.

*Key Terms

Direct investment. Investment in which a resident of one countryobtains a lasting interest in, and a degree of influence over the managementof, a business enterprise in another country. In the UnitedStates, the criterion used to distinguish direct investment from othertypes of investment is ownership of at least 10 percent of the votingsecurities of an incorporated business enterprise or the equivalentinterest in an unincorporated business enterprise.

U.S. direct investment abroad (USDIA). The ownership or control,directly or indirectly, by one U.S. resident of 10 percent or moreof the voting securities of an incorporated foreign business enterpriseor the equivalent interest in an unincorporated foreign businessenterprise.

Foreign direct investment in the United States (FDIUS). The ownershipor control, directly or indirectly, by one foreign resident of10 percent or more of the voting securities of an incorporated enterprise or the equivalent interest in an unincorporatedU.S. business enterprise.

Foreign affiliate. A foreign business enterprise in which a singleU.S. investor (that is, a U.S. parent) owns at least 10 percent of thevoting securities, or the equivalent.

U.S. affiliate. A U.S. business enterprise in which a single foreigninvestor (that is, a foreign parent) owns at least 10 percent of thevoting securities, or the equivalent.Direct investment capital flows. Fundsthat parent companiespro-videto their affiliates net of funds that affiliates provide to theirparents. For USDIA, capital flows also include the funds that investors pay to unaffiliated foreign parties when affiliates areacquired and the funds that U.S. investors receive from them whenaffiliates are sold. Similarly, FDIUS capital flows include the fundsthat foreign direct investors pay to unaffiliated U.S. residents whenaffiliates are acquired and the funds that foreign investors receivefrom them when affiliates are sold.

Direct investment capital flows consist of equity capital, intercompanydebt,andreinvested earnings. Equity capital flows are the netof equity capital increases and decreases. Equity capital increasesconsist of payments made by parents to third parties for the purchaseof capital stock when they acquire an existing business, aswell as funds that parents provide to their affiliates that increasetheir ownership interest in the affiliates. Equity capital decreasesare funds parents receive when they reduce their equity interest inexisting affiliates. Intercompany debt flows result from changes innet outstanding loans and trade accounts between parents and theiraffiliates; they include loans by parents to affiliates and loans by af-filiates to parents. Reinvested earnings are the parents claim on theundistributed after-tax earnings of the affiliates.

Direct investment position. The value of direct investors equityin, and net outstanding loans to, their affiliates. The position maybe viewed as the parents contributions to the total assets of theiraffiliates or as the financing provided in the form of equity (includingreinvested earnings) or debt by parents to their affiliates. Financingobtained from other sources, such as local or foreign third-partyborrowing, is excluded.

BEA provides estimates of the positions for USDIA and for FDIUSthat are valued on three baseshistorical cost, current cost, andmarket value. At historical cost, the positions are valued accordingto the values carried on the books of affiliates; thus, most investmentsreflect price levels of earlier time periods. At current cost, theportion of the position representing parents shares of their affiliatestangible assets (property, plant, and equipment and inventories) isrevalued from historical cost to replacement cost. At market value,the owners equity portion of the position is revalued to currentmarket value using indexes of stock prices.

Valuation adjustments to the historical-cost position. Adjustmentsto account for the differences between changes in the position, whichare measured at book value, and direct investment capital flows,which are measured at transactions value. (Unlike the positionson a current-cost and market-value basis, the historical-cost positionis not adjusted to account for changes in the replacement costof the tangible assets of affiliates or in the market value of parentcompanies equity in affiliates.)

Valuation adjustments to the historical-cost position consist ofcurrency translation and other adjustments. Currency-translationadjustments are made to account for changes in the exchange ratesthat are used to translate affiliates foreign-currency-denominatedassets and liabilities into U.S. dollars. The precise effects of currencyfluctuations on these adjustments depend on the value andcurrency composition of affiliates assets and liabilities. Depreciationof foreign currencies against the dollar usually results in negativetranslation adjustments because it tends to lower the dollar value offoreign-currency-denominated net assets. Similarly, appreciation offoreign currencies usually results in positive adjustments because ittends to raise the dollar value of foreign-currency-denominated netassets.

Other adjustments are made to account for differences betweenthe proceeds from the sale or liquidation of affiliates and their bookvalues, for differences between the purchase prices of affiliates andtheir book values, for writeoffs resulting from uncompensated expropriationsof affiliates, for changes in industry of affiliate or country offoreign parent, and for capital gains and losses (other than currencytranslation adjustments). These capital gains and losses representthe revaluation of the assets of ongoing affiliates for reasons otherthan exchange-rate changes, such as the partial sale of the assets foran amount different from their historical cost.

The largest component of capital flows underlyingthe changes in both positions was equitycapital, which includes the funds used to acquireand establish new affiliates and capitalcontributions to existing affiliates. Equity capitalaccounted for almost half of the total outflowsfor USDIA and over four-fifths of the total inflowsfor FDIUS.


These tables are based on figures supplied by the United States Census Bureau, U.S. Department of Commerce and are subject to revision by the Census Bureau.

Copyright 2019 Photius Coutsoukis and Information Technology Associates, all rights reserved.