|| MAIN | SEARCH | FEEDBACK | FAQ | GLOSSARY | COUNTRIES | MAPS | ITA HOME PAGE ||
2. Vital Statistics
3. Health and Nutrition
5. Law Enforcement, Courts
6. Geography and Environment
7. Parks, Recreation, Travel
9. State and Local Government
Finances and Employment
10. Federal Government
Finances and Employment
11. National Defense and
12. Social Insurance and Human
13. Labor Force, Employment,
14. Income, Expenditures, and
16. Banking, Finance, and
17. Business Enterprise
18. Communications and
20. Science and Technology
21. Transportation - Land
22. Transportation - Air
24. Natural Resources
25. Construction and Housing
27. Domestic Trade and
28. Foreign Commerce and Aid
29. Outlying Areas
30. Comparative International
31. Industrial Outlook
32. 1997 Economic Census
1 Includes central administrative offices and auxiliary units.
2 Includes employment and payroll at administrative offices and auxiliary units. All employees represents the average of production workers plus all other employees for the payroll period ended nearest the 12th of March. Production workers represents the average of the employment for the payroll periods ended nearest the 12th of March, May, August, and November.
3 Includes extensive and unmeasurable duplication from shipments between establishments in the same industry classification.
4 Adjusted value added; takes into account (a) value added by merchandising operations (that is, difference between the sales value and cost of merchandise sold without further manufacture, processing, or assembly), plus (b) net change in finished goods and work-in- process inventories between beginning and end of year.
Source: U.S. Census Bureau, 1982, 1987, and 1992 Census of Manufactures; and Annual Survey of Manufactures, Geographic Area Statistics, series M__(AS)-3, annual. Note: Reports for manufacturing by state for 1997 from the 1997 Economic Census are being issued on a flow basis beginning in the summer of 1999.
ANNUAL SURVEY OF MANUFACTURES
To provide detailed annual statistics on the location, activities, and products of U.S. manufacturers. The United States Code, Title 13, requires this survey and provides for mandatory responses.
All establishments that are classified in SIC Division D, Manufacturing, and have at least one employee. In 1993, the total value of shipments by manufacturing establishments was over $3 trillion.
Topics covered are the same as for the census of manufactures but product detail is less. Basic data obtained include kind of business, location, ownership, value of shipments, payroll and employment. Additional data collected include cost of materials, inventories, new capital expenditures, fuel and energy costs, hours worked and payroll supplements.
Annually since 1949; reported data are for activities taking place during the survey calendar year. For census years, data collection is part of the census of manufactures. A new panel is selected every 5 years, most recently for the 1994 survey.
A mail-out/mail-back survey of 55,000 selected establishments and administrative data for small employers and new businesses. The mail survey represents all establishments that received a form in the previous census of manufactures. Some 25,000 large establishments (all establishments of multi- unit companies with shipments of at least $500 million, manufacturers of selected computer products, and all remaining establishments with at least 250 employees) are selected with certainty, and some 30,000 other establishments (generally with the equivalent of 20 to 250 employees) are selected with probability proportional to a composite measure of establishment size. Selected establishments receive a long form; except that, to reduce burden, about 5,000 single-establishment firms from industries with large numbers of small firms (that have between 5 to 20 employees) receive a short form.
The mail survey universe is updated annually from three sources; Internal Revenue Service Administrative records are used to include new single-unit manufacturers, the company organization survey identifies new establishments of multi-unit firms, and a manufacturers classification survey identifies kinds of business.
To represent census non-mail cases, small single-establishment firms (generally with 1 to 5 employees) and new establishments, annual estimates are made based on information from Internal Revenue Service individual and business income tax records.
* CENSUS OF MANUFACTURES
To provide periodic and comprehensive statistics about manufacturing establishments, activities, and production. The United States Code, Title 13, requires this census and provides for mandatory responses.
All domestic establishments that are classified in SIC Division D, Manufacturing, and have at least one employee. Coverage is virtually unchanged since 1947. In 1992, the total value of shipments by manufacturers was $3 trillion.
Basic data obtained for all establishments include kind of business, geographic location, type of ownership, total revenue, annual and first quarter payroll, and employees in the pay period including March 12. Establishments receiving a long form provide added detail and added data (including inventories, capital expenditures, identification of some 1,000 materials consumed, cost of materials, energy consumed, and quantity and value of shipments for some 11,000 products). Short forms request much less data detail and no identification of materials consumed.
Every 5 years since 1967, for years ending in "2" and "7." Previous censuses were conducted for years 1963, 1958, 1954, and 1947; and questions on manufactures were first included in population censuses in 1810. Data are requested for activities taking place during the previous calendar year.
A mail-out/mail-back census of 237,000 establishments of all multi-unit firms and single-unit firms with payrolls above cutoff size; plus administrative data for all 143,000 non-mail single establishments. Firms and establishments selected for the annual survey of manufactures (ASM) receive a long form, with the ASM as pages 1-4. Other establishments with payrolls larger than a cutoff size that varies by industry (generally equivalent to 5 employees) receive either a long or short form; most above cutoff establishments receive a long form, and some small single-unit firms in about 80 industries that have a large number of selected small firms (with 5 to 20 employees) receive a short form. For single-unit firms below cutoff size (those not receiving a census form), basic data are obtained from Federal income tax records and additional data items are estimated using industry averages.
* Number of establishments and companies.
A separate report was required for each manufacturing establishment (plant) with one employee or more. An establishment is defined as a single physical location where manufacturing is performed. A company, on the other hand, is defined as a business organization consisting of one establishment or more under common ownership or control.
If the company operated at different physical locations, even if the individual locations were producing the same line of goods, a separate report was requested for each location. If the company operated in two or more distinct lines of manufacturing or mining at the same location, a separate report was requested for each activity.
An establishment not in operation for any portion of the year was requested to return the report form with the proper notation in the "Operational Status" section of the form. In addition, the establishment was requested to report data on any employees, capital expenditures, inventories, or shipments from inventories during the year.
In this report, data are shown for establishments in operation at any time during the year. A comparison with the number of establishments in operation at the end of the year will be provided in the Introduction of the General Summary subject report.
This item includes all full-time and part-time employees on the payrolls of operating manu- facturing establishments during any part of the pay period which included the 12th of the months specified on the report form. Included are all persons on paid sick leave, paid holidays, and paid vacations during these pay periods. Officers of corporations are included as employees; proprietors and partners of unincorporated firms are excluded. The "all employees" number is the average number of production workers plus the number of other employees in mid-March. The number of production workers is the average for the payroll periods including the 12th of March, May, August, and November.
This item includes workers (up through the line-supervisor level) engaged in fabricating, processing, assembling, inspecting, receiving, storing, handling, packing, warehousing, shipping (but not delivering), maintenance, repair, janitorial and guard services, product development, auxiliary production for plant's own use (e.g., power plant), recordkeeping, and other services closely associated with these production operations at the establishment covered by the report. Employees above the working- supervisor level are excluded from this item.
All other employees.
This item covers nonproduction employees of the manufacturing establishment including those engaged in factory supervision above the line-supervisor level. It includes sales (including driver salespersons), sales delivery (highway truckdrivers and their helpers), advertising, credit, collection, installation and servicing of own products, clerical and routine office function, executive, purchasing, financing, legal, personnel (including cafeteria, medical, etc.), professional, and technical employees. Also included are employees on the payroll of the manufacturing establishment engaged in the construction of major additions or alterations to the plant and utilized as a separate work force.
In addition to reports sent to operating manufacturing establishments, information on employment during the payroll period which included March 12 and annual payrolls also was requested of auxiliary units (e.g., administrative offices, warehouses, and research and development laboratories) of multiestablishment companies. However, these figures are not included in the totals for individual industries shown in this report. They are included in the General Summary and geographic area reports as a separate category.
This item includes the gross earnings of all employees on the payrolls of operating manufacturing establishments paid in the calendar year 1992. Respondents were told they could follow the definition of payrolls used for calculating the Federal withholding tax. It includes all forms of compensation, such as salaries, wages, commissions, dismissal pay, bonuses, vacation and sick leave pay, and compensation in kind, prior to such deductions as employees' Social Security contributions, withholding taxes, group insurance, union dues, and savings bonds. The total includes salaries of officers of corporations; it excludes payments to proprietors or partners of unincorporated concerns. Also excluded are payments to members of Armed Forces and pensioners carried on the active payrolls of manufacturing establishments.
The census definition of payrolls is identical to that recommended to all Federal statistical agencies by the Office of Management and Budget. It should be noted that this definition does not include employers' Social Security contributions or other nonpayroll labor costs, such as employees' pension plans, group insurance premiums, and workers' compensation.
The ASM provides estimates of employers' supplemental labor costs, both those required by Federal and State laws and those incurred voluntarily or as part of collective bargaining agreements. (Supplemental labor costs are explained later in this documentation.)
As in the case of employment figures, the payrolls of separate auxiliary units of multiestablishment companies are not included in the totals for individual industries or industry groups.
This item covers hours worked or paid for at the plant, including actual overtime hours (not straight-time equivalent hours). It excludes hours paid for vacations, holidays, or sick leave.
Cost of materials
This term refers to direct charges actually paid or payable for items consumed or put into production during the year, including freight charges and other direct charges incurred by the establishment in acquiring these materials. It includes the cost of materials or fuel consumed, whether purchased by the individual establishment from other companies, transferred to it from other establishments of the same company, or withdrawn from inventory during the year.
The important components of this cost item are (1) all raw materials, semifinished goods, parts, containers, scrap, and supplies put into production or used as operating supplies and for repair and maintenance during the year, (2) electric energy purchased, (3) fuels consumed for heat, power, or the generation of electricity, (4) work done by others on materials or parts furnished by manufacturing establishments (contract work), and (5) products bought and resold in the same condition. (See discussion of duplication of data below.)
Value of shipments
This item covers the received or receivable net selling values, f.o.b. plant (exclusive of freight and taxes), of all products shipped, both primary and secondary, as well as all miscellaneous receipts, such as receipts for contract work performed for others, installation and repair, sales of scrap, and sales of products bought and resold without further processing. Included are all items made by or for the establishments from materials owned by it, whether sold, transferred to other plants of the same company, or shipped on consignment. The net selling value of products made in one plant on a contract basis from materials owned by another was reported by the plant providing the materials.
In the case of multiunit companies, the manufacturer was requested to report the value of products transferred to other establishments of the same company at full economic or commercial value, including not only the direct cost of production but also a reasonable proportion of "all other costs" (including company overhead) and profit. (See discussion of duplication of data below.)
Duplication in cost of materials and value of shipments.
The aggregate of the cost of materials and value of shipments figures for industry groups and for all manufacturing industries includes large amounts of duplication since the products of some industries are used as materials by others. This duplication results, in part, from the addition of related industries representing successive stages in the production of a finished manufactured product. Examples are the addition of flour mills to bakeries in the food group and the addition of pulp mills to paper mills in the paper and allied products group of industries. Estimates of the overall extent of this duplication indicate that the value of manufactured products exclusive of such duplication (the value of finished manufactures) tends to approximate two-thirds of the total value of products reported in the annual survey.
Duplication of products within individual industries is significant within a number of industry groups, e.g., machinery and transportation industries. These industries frequently include complete machinery and their parts. In this case, the parts made for original equipment are materials consumed for assembly plants in the same industry.
Even when no significant amount of duplication is involved, value of shipments figures are deficient as measures of the relative economic importance of individual manufacturing industries or geographic areas because of the wide variation in ratio of materials, labor, and other processing costs of value of shipments, both among industries and within the same industry.
Before 1962, cost of materials and value of shipments were not published for some industries which included considerable duplication. Since then, these data have been published for all industries at the U.S. level and beginning in 1964, for all geographic levels.
->Value added by manufacture.
This measure of manufacturing activity is derived by subtracting the cost of materials, supplies, containers, fuel, purchased electricity, and contract work from the value of shipments (products manufactured plus receipts for services rendered). The result of this calculation is adjusted by the addition of value added by merchandising operations (i.e., the difference between the sales value and the cost of merchandise sold without further manufacture, processing, or assembly) plus the net change in finished goods and work-in-process between the beginning- and end-of-year inventories.
For those industries where value of production is collected instead of value of shipments (see footnote in table 1a), value added is adjusted only for the change in work-in-process inventories between the beginning and end of year. For those industries where value of work done is collected, the value added does not include an adjustment for the change in finished goods or work-in-process inventories.
"Value added" avoids the duplication in the figure for value of shipments that results from the use of products of some establishments as materials by others. Value added is considered to be the best value measure available for comparing the relative economic importance of manufacturing among industries and geographic areas.
New and used capital expenditures
For establishments in operation and any known plants under construction, manufacturers were asked to report their new expenditures for (1) permanent additions and major alterations to manufacturing establishments, and (2) machinery and equipment used for replacement and additions to plant capacity if they were of the type for which depreciation accounts were ordinarily maintained.
The totals for new expenditures include expenditures leased from nonmanufacturing concerns through capital leases. New facilities owned by the Federal Government but operated under contract by private companies, and plant and equipment furnished to the manufacturer by communities and nonprofit organizations are excluded. Also excluded are expenditures for used plant and equipment (although reported in the census), expenditures for land, and cost of maintenance and repairs charged as current operating expenses.
Manufacturers also were requested to report the value of all used buildings and equipment purchased during the year at the purchase price. For any equipment or structure transferred for the use of the reporting establishment by the parent company or one of its subsidiaries, the value at which it was transferred to the establishment was to be reported. Furthermore, if the establishment changed ownership during the year, the cost of the fixed assets (building and equipment) was to be reported under used capital expenditures.
These tables are based on figures supplied by the United States Census Bureau, U.S. Department of Commerce and are subject to revision by the Census Bureau.
Copyright © 2006 Photius Coutsoukis and Information Technology Associates, all rights reserved.