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Burma Government 2016
https://allcountries.org/world_fact_book_2016/burma/burma_government.html
SOURCE: 2016 CIA WORLD FACTBOOK AND OTHER SOURCES











Burma Government 2016
SOURCE: 2016 CIA WORLD FACTBOOK AND OTHER SOURCES


Page last updated on February 11, 2016

Country name:
conventional long form: Union of Burma
conventional short form: Burma
local long form: Pyidaungzu Thammada Myanma Naingngandaw (translated as the Republic of the Union of Myanmar)
local short form: Myanma Naingngandaw
former: Socialist Republic of the Union of Burma, Union of Myanmar
note: since 1989 the military authorities in Burma and the current parliamentary government have promoted the name Myanmar as a conventional name for their state; the US Government has not adopted the name
etymology: both Burma and Myanmar derive from the name of the majority Burmese Bamar ethnic group

Government type:
parliamentary government took power in March 2011

Capital:
name: Rangoon (Yangon); note - Nay Pyi Taw is the administrative capital
geographic coordinates: 16 48 N, 96 09 E
time difference: UTC+6.5 (11.5 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)

Administrative divisions:
7 regions (taing-myar, singular - taing), 7 states (pyi ne-myar, singular - pyi ne), 1 union territory
regions: Ayeyawady (Irrawaddy), Bago, Magway, Mandalay, Sagaing, Taninthayi, Yangon (Rangoon)
states: Chin, Kachin, Kayah, Kayin, Mon, Rakhine (Arakan), Shan
union territory: Nay Pyi Taw

Independence:
4 January 1948 (from the UK)

National holiday:
Independence Day, 4 January (1948); Union Day, 12 February (1947)

Constitution:
previous 1947, 1974 (suspended until 2008); latest approved by referendum 29 May 2008 (2015)

Legal system:
mixed legal system of English common law (as introduced in codifications designed for colonial India) and customary law

International law organization participation:
has not submitted an ICJ jurisdiction declaration; non-party state to the ICCt

Citizenship:
citizenship by birth: no
citizenship by descent only: both parents must be citizens of Burma
dual citizenship recognized: no
residency requirement for naturalization: none
note: an applicant for naturalization must be the child or spouse of a citizen

Suffrage:
18 years of age; universal
[see also: Suffrage country ranks ]

Executive branch:
chief of state: President THEIN SEIN (since 4 February 2011); Vice Presidents SAI MAUK KHAM (since 3 February 2011), NYAN TUN (since 15 August 2012); note - the president is both chief of state and head of government
head of government: President THEIN SEIN (since 4 February 2011)
cabinet: Cabinet appointments shared by the president and the commander-in-chief
elections/appointments: president indirectly elected by simple majority vote by the legislature's Presidential Electoral College from among 3 vice presidential nominees - 1 each from the Upper House, the Lower House, and military members of the legislature (president elected for a 5-year term); note - the next president will be elected in February 2016
election results: president (pending); Presidential Electoral College vote NA

Legislative branch:
description: bicameral Assembly of the Union or Pyidaungsu consists of an upper house - the House of Nationalities or Amyotha Hluttaw, (224 seats; 168 members directly elected in single-seat constituencies by absolute majority vote with a second round if needed and 56 appointed by the military; members serve 5-year terms) and a lower house - the House of Representatives or Pyithu Hluttaw, (440 seats; 330 members directly elected in single-seat constituencies by simple majority vote and 110 appointed by the military; members serve 5-year terms)
elections: last held on 8 November 2015 (next to be held in 2020)
election results: Upper House - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - NLD 135, USDP 11, ANP 10, SNLD 3, ZCD 2, TNP 2, independent 2, other 3, military appointees 56; Lower House - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - NLD 255, USDP 30, ANP 12, SNLD 12, PNO 3, TNP 3, ZCD 2, LNDP 2, independent 1, other 3, canceled due to insurgence 7, military appointees 110

Judicial branch:
highest court(s): Supreme Court of the Union (consists of the chief justice and 7-11 judges)
judge selection and term of office: chief justice and judges nominated by the president, with approval of the Lower House, and appointed by the president; judges normally serve until mandatory retirement at age 70
subordinate courts: High Courts of the Region; High Courts of the State; Court of the Self-Administered Division; Court of the Self-Administered Zone; district and township courts; special courts (for juvenile, municipal, and traffic offenses); courts martial

Political parties and leaders:
All Mon Region Democracy Party or AMRDP [NAING NGWE THEIN] Arakan National Party or ANP [Dr. AYE MAUNG] (formed from the 2013 merger of the Rakhine Nationalities Development Party and the Arakan League for Democracy) National Democratic Force or NDF [KHIN MAUNG SWE] National League for Democracy or NLD [AUNG SAN SUU KYI] National Unity Party or NUP [THAN TIN] Pa-O National Organization or PNO [AUNG KHAN HTI] Shan Nationalities Democratic Party or SNDP [SAI AIK PAUNG] Shan Nationalities League for Democracy or SNLD [KHUN HTUN OO] Ta'ang National Party or TNP [AIK MONE] Union Solidarity and Development Party or USDP [HTAY OO] Zomi Congress for Democracy or ZCD [PU CIN SIAN THANG] numerous smaller parties

Political pressure groups and leaders:
Thai border: Ethnic Nationalities Council or ENC Federation of Trade Unions-Burma or FTUB (exile trade union and labor advocates) National Coalition Government of the Union of Burma or NCGUB (self-proclaimed government in exile) ["Prime Minister" Dr. SEIN WIN] consists of individuals, some legitimately elected to the People's Assembly in 1990 (the group fled to a border area and joined insurgents in December 1990 to form a parallel government in exile) National Council-Union of Burma or NCUB (exile coalition of opposition groups) United Nationalities Federal Council or UNFC
inside Burma: Kachin Independence Organization Karen National Union or KNU Karenni National People's Party or KNPP United Wa State Army or UWSA 88 Generation Students (pro-democracy movement) several other Chin, Karen, Mon, and Shan factions
note: freedom of expression has been highly restricted in Burma; the restrictions are being relaxed by the government; a limited number of political groups, other than parties are approved by the government

International organization participation:
ADB, ARF, ASEAN, BIMSTEC, CP, EAS, EITI (candidate country), FAO, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO (correspondent), ITU, ITUC (NGOs), NAM, OPCW (signatory), SAARC (observer), UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO

Diplomatic representation in the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador KYAW MYO HTUT (since 3 December 2013)
chancery: 2300 S Street NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone: [1] (202) 332-3344
FAX: [1] (202) 332-4351
consulate(s) general: Los Angeles, New York

Diplomatic representation from the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Derek J. MITCHELL (since 11 July 2012)
embassy: 110 University Avenue, Kamayut Township, Rangoon
mailing address: Box B, APO AP 96546
telephone: [95] (1) 536-509, 535-756, 538-038
FAX: [95] (1) 511-069

Flag description:
design consists of three equal horizontal stripes of yellow (top), green, and red; centered on the green band is a large white five-pointed star that partially overlaps onto the adjacent colored stripes; the design revives the triband colors used by Burma from 1943-45, during the Japanese occupation

National symbol(s):
chinthe (mythical lion); national colors: yellow, green, red, white

National anthem:
name: "Kaba Ma Kyei" (Till the End of the World, Myanmar)
lyrics/music: SAYA TIN
note: adopted 1948; Burma is among a handful of non-European nations that have anthems rooted in indigenous traditions; the beginning portion of the anthem is a traditional Burmese anthem before transitioning into a Western-style orchestrated work


NOTE: The information regarding Burma on this page is re-published from the 2016 World Fact Book of the United States Central Intelligence Agency. No claims are made regarding the accuracy of Burma Government 2016 information contained here. All suggestions for corrections of any errors about Burma Government 2016 should be addressed to the CIA.




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