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Zimbabwe Government 2018

SOURCE: 2018 CIA WORLD FACTBOOK AND OTHER SOURCES











Zimbabwe Government 2018
SOURCE: 2018 CIA WORLD FACTBOOK AND OTHER SOURCES


Page last updated on February 28, 2018

Country name:
conventional long form: Republic of Zimbabwe
conventional short form: Zimbabwe
former: Southern Rhodesia, Rhodesia
etymology: takes its name from the Kingdom of Zimbabwe (13th-15th century) and its capital of Great Zimbabwe, the largest stone structure in pre-colonial southern Africa

Government type:
semi-presidential republic

Capital:
name: Harare
geographic coordinates: 17 49 S, 31 02 E
time difference: UTC+2 (7 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)

Administrative divisions:
8 provinces and 2 cities* with provincial status; Bulawayo*, Harare*, Manicaland, Mashonaland Central, Mashonaland East, Mashonaland West, Masvingo, Matabeleland North, Matabeleland South, Midlands

Independence:
18 April 1980 (from the UK)

National holiday:
Independence Day, 18 April (1980)

Constitution:
history: previous 1965 (at Rhodesian independence), 1979 (Lancaster House Agreement), 1980 (at Zimbabwean independence); latest final draft completed January 2013, approved by referendum 16 March 2013, approved by Parliament 9 May 2013, effective 22 May 2013
amendments: proposed by the Senate or by the House of Assembly; passage requires two-thirds majority vote by the membership of both houses of Parliament and assent by the president of the republic; amendments to constitutional chapters on fundamental human rights and freedoms and on agricultural lands also require approval by a majority of votes cast in a referendum; amended many times, last in 2017 (2017)

Legal system:
mixed legal system of English common law, Roman-Dutch civil law, and customary law

International law organization participation:
has not submitted an ICJ jurisdiction declaration; non-party state to the ICCt

Citizenship:
citizenship by birth: no
citizenship by descent only: the father must be a citizen of Zimbabwe; in the case of a child born out of wedlock, the mother must be a citizen
dual citizenship recognized: no
residency requirement for naturalization: 5 years

Suffrage:
18 years of age; universal
[see also: Suffrage country ranks ]

Executive branch:
chief of state: President Emmerson Dambudzo MNANGAGWA (since 24 November 2017); note - Robert Gabriel MUGABE resigned on 21 November 2017, after ruling for 37 years
head of government: President Emmerson Dambudzo MNANGAGWA (since 24 November 2017)
cabinet: Cabinet appointed by president, responsible to House of Assembly
elections/appointments: each presidential candidate nominated with a nomination paper signed by at least 10 registered voters (at least 1 candidate from each province) and directly elected by absolute majority popular vote in 2 rounds if needed for a 5-year term (no term limits); election last held on 31 July 2013 (next to be held in 2018); co-vice presidents drawn from party leadership
election results: Robert Gabriel MUGABE reelected president; percent of vote - Robert Gabriel MUGABE (ZANU-PF) 61.1%, Morgan TSVANGIRAI (MDC-T) 34.4%, Welshman NCUBE (MDC-N) 2.7%, other 1.8%; note - the election process was considered flawed and roundly criticized by election monitors and international bodies; both the African Union and the South African Development Community endorsed the results of the election with some concerns

Legislative branch:
description: bicameral Parliament consists of the Senate (80 seats; 60 members directly elected in multi-seat constituencies - 6 seats in each of the 10 provinces - by proportional representation vote, 16 indirectly elected by the regional governing councils, 2 reserved for the National Council Chiefs, and 2 reserved for members with disabilities; members serve 5-year terms) and the House of Assembly (270 seats; 210 members directly elected in single-seat constituencies by simple majority vote and 60 seats reserved for women directly elected by proportional representation vote; members serve 5-year terms)
elections: last held on 31 July 2013 (next to be held in 2018)
election results: Senate - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - ZANU-PF 37, MDC-T 21, MDC-N 2, chiefs 18, people with disabilities 2; House of Assembly - percent of vote by party - ZANU-PF 62.4%, MDC-T 30.3%, MDC-N 4.7%, other 0.7%, independent 1.9%; seats by party - ZANU-PF 196, MDC-T 70, MDC-N 2, independent 2

Judicial branch:
highest court(s): Supreme Court (consists of the chief justice and 4 judges); Constitutional Court (consists of the chief and deputy chief justices and 9 judges)
judge selection and term of office: Supreme Court judges appointed by the president upon recommendation of the Judicial Service Commission, an independent body consisting of the chief justice, Public Service Commission chairman, attorney general, and 2-3 members appointed by the president; judges normally serve until age 65 but can elect to serve until age 70; Constitutional Court judge appointment NA; judges serve nonrenewable 15-year terms
subordinate courts: High Court; Labor Court; Administrative Court; regional magistrate courts; customary law courts; special courts

Political parties and leaders:
Freedom Front [Cosmas MPONDA] Movement for Democratic Change - Ncube or MDC-N [Welshman NCUBE] Movement for Democratic Change - Tsvangirai or MDC-T (acting leader Nelson CHAMISA) National People's Party or NPP [Joyce MUJURU] formerly Zimbabwe People First or ZimPF) Peoples Democratic Party or PDP [Tendai BITI] Transform Zimbabwe or TZ [Jacob NGARIVHUME] Zimbabwe African National Union-Patriotic Front or ZANU-PF [Emmerson Dambudzo MNANGAGWA] Zimbabwe African Peoples Union or ZAPU [Dumiso DABENGWA] Zimbabwe People First or ZimFirst [Maxwell SHUMBA]

Political pressure groups and leaders:
Crisis in Zimbabwe Coalition National Constitutional Assembly or NCA [Lovemore MADHUKU] Women of Zimbabwe Arise or WOZA [Jenni WILLIAMS] Zimbabwe Congress of Trade Unions or ZCTU [Peter MUTASA] Zimbabwe Human Rights Association or ZimRights [Okay MACHISA] Zimbabwe Human Rights NGO Forum [Jestina MUKOKO] Zimbabwe Lawyers for Human Rights or ZLHR [Roselyn HANZI]

International organization participation:
ACP, AfDB, AU, COMESA, FAO, G-15, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC (NGOs), MIGA, NAM, OPCW, PCA, SADC, UN, UNAMID, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNMIL, UNMISS, UNOCI, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WFTU (NGOs), WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO

Diplomatic representation in the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Ammon MUTEMBWA (since 18 November 2014)
chancery: 1608 New Hampshire Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20009
telephone: [1] (202) 332-7100
FAX: [1] (202) 483-9326

Diplomatic representation from the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Harry K. THOMAS, Jr. (since 25 February 2016)
embassy: 172 Herbert Chitepo Avenue, Harare
mailing address: P.O. Box 3340, Harare
telephone: [263] (4) 250-593 through 250-594
FAX: [263] (4) 796-488, or 722-618

Flag description:
seven equal horizontal bands of green, yellow, red, black, red, yellow, and green with a white isosceles triangle edged in black with its base on the hoist side; a yellow Zimbabwe bird representing the long history of the country is superimposed on a red five-pointed star in the center of the triangle, which symbolizes peace; green represents agriculture, yellow mineral wealth, red the blood shed to achieve independence, and black stands for the native people

National symbol(s):
Zimbabwe bird symbol, African fish eagle, flame lily; national colors: green, yellow, red, black, white

National anthem:
name: "Kalibusiswe Ilizwe leZimbabwe" [Northern Ndebele language] "Simudzai Mureza WeZimbabwe" [Shona] (Blessed Be the Land of Zimbabwe)
lyrics/music: Solomon MUTSWAIRO/Fred Lecture CHANGUNDEGA
note: adopted 1994


NOTE: 1) The information regarding Zimbabwe on this page is re-published from the 2018 World Fact Book of the United States Central Intelligence Agency. No claims are made regarding the accuracy of Zimbabwe Government 2018 information contained here. All suggestions for corrections of any errors about Zimbabwe Government 2018 should be addressed to the CIA.
2) The rank that you see is the CIA reported rank, which may habe the following issues:
  a) The assign increasing rank number, alphabetically for countries with the same value of the ranked item, whereas we assign them the same rank.
  b) The CIA sometimes assignes counterintuitive ranks. For example, it assigns unemployment rates in increasing order, whereas we rank them in decreasing order






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