Sudan Transnational Issues 2016

Sudan Transnational Issues 2016

Page last updated on February 11, 2016

Disputes - international:
the effects of Sudan's almost constant ethnic and rebel militia fighting since the mid-20th century have penetrated all of the neighboring states; Chad wishes to be a helpful mediator in resolving the Darfur conflict, and in 2010 established a joint border monitoring force with Sudan, which has helped to reduce cross-border banditry and violence; as of mid-2013, Chad, Egypt, Ethiopia, Israel, the Central African Republic, and South Sudan provided shelter for more than 600,000 Sudanese refugees; during the same period, Sudan, in turn, hosted about 115,000 Eritreans, 32,000 Chadians, and smaller numbers of Ethiopians and Central Africans; Sudan accuses Eritrea of supporting Sudanese rebel groups; efforts to demarcate the porous boundary with Ethiopia proceed slowly due to civil and ethnic fighting in eastern Sudan; Sudan claims but Egypt de facto administers security and economic development of the Halaib region north of the 22nd parallel boundary; periodic violent skirmishes with Sudanese residents over water and grazing rights persist among related pastoral populations along the border with the Central African Republic; South Sudan-Sudan boundary represents 1 January 1956 alignment, final alignment pending negotiations and demarcation; final sovereignty status of Abyei Area pending negotiations between South Sudan and Sudan

Refugees and internally displaced persons:
refugees (country of origin): 109,196 (Eritrea); 42,334 (Chad); 5,495 (Ethiopia) (2014); 5,540 (Yemen) (2015); 199,608 (South Sudan) (2016)
IDPs: 3.1 million (civil war 1983-2005; ongoing conflict in Darfur region; government and rebel fighting along South Sudan border; inter-tribal clashes) (2015)

Trafficking in persons:
current situation: Sudan is a source, transit, and destination country for men, women, and children subjected to forced labor and sex trafficking; Sudanese women and girls, particularly those from rural areas or who are internally displaced, are vulnerable to forced labor as domestic workers in homes throughout the country; Sudanese women and girls are subjected to domestic servitude in Middle Eastern countries and to forced sex trafficking in Europe; some Sudanese men who voluntarily migrate to the Middle East as low-skilled laborers face conditions indicative of forced labor; Sudanese children in Darfur are forcibly conscripted, at times through abduction, and used by armed groups and government security forces, while Sudanese children in Saudi Arabia are used in forced begging and street vending; Sudan is a transit and destination country for Ethiopian, Eritrean, and Filipina women subjected to domestic servitude in Sudan and Middle Eastern countries, as well as a destination country for women sex trafficked from East African countries and possibly Thailand
tier rating: Tier 3 - Sudan does not fully comply with the minimum standards for the elimination of trafficking and is not making significant efforts to do so; in 2013, the government enacted an anti-trafficking law, raised the age of military recruitment to 18, rescued and assisted an increased number of trafficking victims, and made efforts to bring traffickers to justice; however, its law enforcement, protection, or prevention measures to address human trafficking remained ad hoc; the government did not employ a system for proactively identifying trafficking victims among vulnerable population or a referral process for transferring victims to organizations providing care; in 2013, Sudan’s armed forces and proxy militia continued to recruit child soldiers and did not conclude a proposed joint action plan with the UN to address the issue (2014)

NOTE: The information regarding Sudan on this page is re-published from the 2016 World Fact Book of the United States Central Intelligence Agency. No claims are made regarding the accuracy of Sudan Transnational Issues 2016 information contained here. All suggestions for corrections of any errors about Sudan Transnational Issues 2016 should be addressed to the CIA.

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