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Peru Government 2016
https://allcountries.org/world_fact_book_2016/peru/peru_government.html
SOURCE: 2016 CIA WORLD FACTBOOK AND OTHER SOURCES











Peru Government 2016
SOURCE: 2016 CIA WORLD FACTBOOK AND OTHER SOURCES


Page last updated on February 11, 2016

Country name:
conventional long form: Republic of Peru
conventional short form: Peru
local long form: Republica del Peru
local short form: Peru
etymology: exact meaning is obscure, but the name may derive from a native word "biru" meaning "river"

Government type:
constitutional republic

Capital:
name: Lima
geographic coordinates: 12 03 S, 77 03 W
time difference: UTC-5 (same time as Washington, DC, during Standard Time)

Administrative divisions:
25 regions (regiones, singular - region) and 1 province* (provincia); Amazonas, Ancash, Apurimac, Arequipa, Ayacucho, Cajamarca, Callao, Cusco, Huancavelica, Huanuco, Ica, Junin, La Libertad, Lambayeque, Lima, Lima*, Loreto, Madre de Dios, Moquegua, Pasco, Piura, Puno, San Martin, Tacna, Tumbes, Ucayali
note: Callao, the largest port in Peru, is also referred to as a constitutional province, the only province of the the Callao region

Independence:
28 July 1821 (from Spain)

National holiday:
Independence Day, 28 July (1821)

Constitution:
several previous; latest promulgated 29 December 1993, enacted 31 December 1993; amended several times, last in 2009 (2015)

Legal system:
civil law system

International law organization participation:
accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction with reservations; accepts ICCt jurisdiction

Citizenship:
citizenship by birth: yes
citizenship by descent: yes
dual citizenship recognized: yes
residency requirement for naturalization: 2 years

Suffrage:
18 years of age; universal and compulsory until the age of 70
[see also: Suffrage country ranks ]

Executive branch:
chief of state: President Ollanta HUMALA Tasso (since 28 July 2011); First Vice President Marisol ESPINOZA Cruz (since 28 July 2011); Second Vice President (vacant); note - the president is both chief of state and head of government
head of government: President Ollanta HUMALA Tasso (since 28 July 2011); First Vice President Marisol ESPINOZA Cruz (since 28 July 2011); Second Vice President (vacant)
cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the president
elections/appointments: president directly elected by absolute majority popular vote in 2 rounds if needed for a 5-year term (eligible for nonconsecutive terms); election last held on 10 April 2011 with runoff on 6 June 2011 (next to be held in April 2016)
election results: Ollanta HUMALA Tasso elected president; percent of vote - Ollanta HUMALA Tasso (Peruvian Nationalist Party) 51.5%, Keiko FUJIMORI Higuchi (Fuerza Popular) 48.5%
note: Prime Minister Pedro CATERIANO Bellido (since 2 April 2015) does not exercise executive power; this power rests with the president; note - Prime Minister Ana JARA was removed from office by Congress in a vote of no confidence on 30 March 2015

Legislative branch:
description: unicameral Congress of the Republic of Peru or Congreso de la Republica del Peru (130 seats; members directly elected in multi-seat constituencies by proportional representation vote to serve 5-year terms)
elections: last held on 10 April 2011 with run-off election on 6 June 2011 (next to be held in April 2016)
election results: percent of vote by party - Gana Peru 25.3%, Fuerza 2011 23%, PP 14.8%, Alliance for Great Change 14.4%, National Solidarity 10.2%, Peruvian Aprista Party 6.4%, other 5.9%; seats by party - Gana Peru 47, Fuerza 2011 37, PP 21, Alliance for Great Change 12, National Solidarity 9, Peruvian Aprista Party 4; seats by bloc party as of 10 March 2014 - Gana Peru 43, Fuerza Popular (formerly Fuerza 2011) 36, PP 10, Accion Popular-Frente Amplio 10, National Solidarity 9, Union Regional 8, Partido Popular Cristiano-Alianza Para el Progreso 7, Concertacion Parlamentaria 6, Independent 1; note - defections by members of the National Assembly are commonplace, resulting in the formation of new blocs and frequent changes in the numbers of seats held by the various blocs

Judicial branch:
highest court(s): Supreme Court (consists of 16 judges and divided into civil, criminal, and constitutional-social sectors)
judge selection and term of office: justices proposed by the National Council of the Judiciary or National Judicial Council (a 7-member independent body), nominated by the president, and confirmed by the Congress (all appointments reviewed by the Council every 7 years); justices appointed for life or until age 70
subordinate courts: Court of Constitutional Guarantees; Superior Courts or Cortes Superiores; specialized civil, criminal, and mixed courts; 2 types of peace courts in which professional judges and selected members of the local communities preside

Political parties and leaders:
Alliance for Progress (Alianza para el Progreso) or APP [Cesar ACUNA Peralta] Fuerza Popular (formerly Fuerza 2011) [Keiko FUJIMORI Higuchi] National Solidarity (Solidaridad Nacional) or SN [Luis CASTANEDA Lossio] Peru Posible or PP (a coalition of Accion Popular and Somos Peru) [Alejandro TOLEDO Manrique] Peruvian Aprista Party (Partido Aprista Peruano) or PAP [Alan GARCIA Perez] (also referred to by its original name Alianza Popular Revolucionaria Americana or APRA) Peruvian Nationalist Party [Ollanta HUMALA] Popular Christian Party (Partido Popular Cristiano) or PPC [Lourdes FLORES Nano] Wide Front (Frente Amplio), a coalition of left-of-center parties including Tierra y Libertad [Marco ARANA Zegarra], Ciudadanos por el Gran Cambio [Salomon LERNER Ghitis], and Fuerza Social [Susana VILLARAN de la Puente]

Political pressure groups and leaders:
General Workers Confederation of Peru (Confederacion General de Trabajadores del Peru) or CGTP [Mario HUAMAN] Shining Path (Sendero Luminoso) or SL [Abimael GUZMAN Reynoso (imprisoned), Victor QUISPE Palomino (top leader at-large)] (leftist guerrilla group)

International organization participation:
APEC, BIS, CAN, CD, CELAC, EITI (compliant country), FAO, G-24, G-77, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC (NGOs), ICCt, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC (NGOs), LAES, LAIA, Mercosur (associate), MIGA, MINUSTAH, MONUSCO, NAM, OAS, OPANAL, OPCW, Pacific Alliance, PCA, SICA (observer), UN, UNAMID, UNASUR, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, Union Latina, UNISFA, UNMISS, UNOCI, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WFTU (NGOs), WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO

Diplomatic representation in the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Luis Miguel CASTILLA Rubio (since 4 February 2015)
chancery: 1700 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20036
telephone: [1] (202) 833-9860 through 9869
FAX: [1] (202) 659-8124
consulate(s) general: Atlanta, Boston, Chicago, Dallas, Denver, Hartford (CT), Houston, Los Angeles, Miami, New York, Paterson (NJ), San Francisco, Washington DC

Diplomatic representation from the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Brian A. NICHOLS (since 30 June 2014)
embassy: Avenida La Encalada, Cuadra 17 s/n, Surco, Lima 33
mailing address: P. O. Box 1995, Lima 1; American Embassy (Lima), APO AA 34031-5000
telephone: [51] (1) 618-2000
FAX: [51] (1) 618-2397

Flag description:
three equal, vertical bands of red (hoist side), white, and red with the coat of arms centered in the white band; the coat of arms features a shield bearing a vicuna (representing fauna), a cinchona tree (the source of quinine, signifying flora), and a yellow cornucopia spilling out coins (denoting mineral wealth); red recalls blood shed for independence, white symbolizes peace

National symbol(s):
vicuna (a camelid related to the llama); national colors: red, white

National anthem:
name: "Himno Nacional del Peru" (National Anthem of Peru)
lyrics/music: Jose DE LA TORRE Ugarte/Jose Bernardo ALZEDO
note: adopted 1822; the song won a national anthem contest


NOTE: The information regarding Peru on this page is re-published from the 2016 World Fact Book of the United States Central Intelligence Agency. No claims are made regarding the accuracy of Peru Government 2016 information contained here. All suggestions for corrections of any errors about Peru Government 2016 should be addressed to the CIA.




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This page was last modified 27-Apr-16
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