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Peru Geography 2008

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Western South America, bordering the South Pacific Ocean, between Chile and Ecuador

Geographic coordinates:
10 00 S, 76 00 W

Map references:
South America

total: 1,285,220 sq km
land: 1.28 million sq km
water: 5,220 sq km

Area - comparative:
slightly smaller than Alaska

Land boundaries:
total: 7,461 km
border countries: Bolivia 1,075 km, Brazil 2,995 km, Chile 171 km, Colombia 1,800 km, Ecuador 1,420 km

2,414 km

Maritime claims:
territorial sea: 200 nm
continental shelf: 200 nm

varies from tropical in east to dry desert in west; temperate to frigid in Andes

western coastal plain (costa), high and rugged Andes in center (sierra), eastern lowland jungle of Amazon Basin (selva)

Elevation extremes:
lowest point: Pacific Ocean 0 m
highest point: Nevado Huascaran 6,768 m

Natural resources:
copper, silver, gold, petroleum, timber, fish, iron ore, coal, phosphate, potash, hydropower, natural gas

Land use:
arable land: 2.88%
permanent crops: 0.47%
other: 96.65% (2005)

Irrigated land:
12,000 sq km (2003)

Total renewable water resources:
1,913 cu km (2000)

Freshwater withdrawal (domestic/industrial/agricultural):
Total: 20.13 cu km/yr (8%/10%/82%)
Per capita: 720 cu m/yr (2000)

Natural hazards:
earthquakes, tsunamis, flooding, landslides, mild volcanic activity

Environment - current issues:
deforestation (some the result of illegal logging); overgrazing of the slopes of the costa and sierra leading to soil erosion; desertification; air pollution in Lima; pollution of rivers and coastal waters from municipal and mining wastes

Environment - international agreements:
party to: Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Antarctic-Marine Living Resources, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Marine Dumping, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands, Whaling
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements

Geography - note:
shares control of Lago Titicaca, world's highest navigable lake, with Bolivia; a remote slope of Nevado Mismi, a 5,316 m peak, is the ultimate source of the Amazon River

NOTE: The information regarding Peru on this page is re-published from the 2008 World Fact Book of the United States Central Intelligence Agency. No claims are made regarding the accuracy of Peru Geography 2008 information contained here. All suggestions for corrections of any errors about Peru Geography 2008 should be addressed to the CIA.

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This page was last modified 24-May-08
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