Libya Economy 2008

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Economy - overview:
The Libyan economy depends primarily upon revenues from the oil sector, which contribute about 95% of export earnings, about one-quarter of GDP, and 60% of public sector wages. Substantial revenues from the energy sector coupled with a small population give Libya one of the highest per capita GDPs in Africa, but little of this income flows down to the lower orders of society. Libyan officials in the past five years have made progress on economic reforms as part of a broader campaign to reintegrate the country into the international fold. This effort picked up steam after UN sanctions were lifted in September 2003 and as Libya announced in December 2003 that it would abandon programs to build weapons of mass destruction. Almost all US unilateral sanctions against Libya were removed in April 2004, helping Libya attract more foreign direct investment, mostly in the energy sector. Libyan oil and gas licensing rounds continue to draw high international interest; the National Oil Company set a goal of nearly doubling oil production to 3 million bbl/day by 2015. Libya faces a long road ahead in liberalizing the socialist-oriented economy, but initial steps - including applying for WTO membership, reducing some subsidies, and announcing plans for privatization - are laying the groundwork for a transition to a more market-based economy. The non-oil manufacturing and construction sectors, which account for more than 20% of GDP, have expanded from processing mostly agricultural products to include the production of petrochemicals, iron, steel, and aluminum. Climatic conditions and poor soils severely limit agricultural output, and Libya imports about 75% of its food. Libya's primary agricultural water source remains the Great Manmade River Project, but significant resources are being invested in desalinization research to meet growing water demands.

GDP (purchasing power parity):
$78.79 billion (2007 est.)

GDP (official exchange rate):
$36.8 billion (2007 est.)

GDP - real growth rate:
5.4% (2007 est.)

GDP - per capita (PPP):
$13,100 (2007 est.)

GDP - composition by sector:
agriculture: 2.1%
industry: 81.7%
services: 16.2% (2007 est.)

Labor force:
1.82 million (2007 est.)

Labor force - by occupation:
agriculture: 17%
industry: 23%
services: 59% (2004 est.)

Unemployment rate:
30% (2004 est.)

Population below poverty line:
7.4% (2005 est.)

Household income or consumption by percentage share:
lowest 10%: NA%
highest 10%: NA%

Inflation rate (consumer prices):
3.3% (2007 est.)

Investment (gross fixed):
8.8% of GDP (2007 est.)

revenues: $39.62 billion
expenditures: $19.51 billion (2007 est.)

Public debt:
4.8% of GDP (2007 est.)

Agriculture - products:
wheat, barley, olives, dates, citrus, vegetables, peanuts, soybeans; cattle

petroleum, iron and steel, food processing, textiles, handicrafts, cement

Industrial production growth rate:
5.6% (2007 est.)

Electricity - production:
21.15 billion kWh (2005)

Electricity - consumption:
18.18 billion kWh (2005)

Electricity - exports:
0 kWh (2005)

Electricity - imports:
0 kWh (2005)

Oil - production:
1.72 million bbl/day (2006 est.)

Oil - consumption:
266,000 bbl/day (2005 est.)

Oil - exports:
1.326 million bbl/day (2004)

Oil - imports:
1,233 bbl/day (2004)

Oil - proved reserves:
39.13 billion bbl (1 January 2006 est.)

natural gas - production:
10.84 billion cu m (2005 est.)

natural gas - consumption:
5.591 billion cu m (2005 est.)

natural gas - exports:
5.246 billion cu m (2005 est.)

natural gas - imports:
0 cu m (2005)

natural gas - proved reserves:
1.43 trillion cu m (1 January 2006 est.)

Current account balance:
$11.71 billion (2007 est.)

$36.37 billion f.o.b. (2007 est.)

Exports - commodities:
crude oil, refined petroleum products, natural gas, chemicals

Exports - partners:
Italy 37.1%, Germany 14.6%, Spain 7.7%, US 6.1%, France 5.6%, Turkey 5.4% (2006)

$15.35 billion f.o.b. (2007 est.)

Imports - partners:
Italy 18.9%, Germany 7.8%, China 7.6%, Tunisia 6.3%, France 5.8%, Turkey 5.3%, US 4.7%, South Korea 4.3%, UK 4% (2006)

Economic aid - recipient:
ODA, $24.44 million (2005 est.)

Reserves of foreign exchange and gold:
$69.51 billion (31 December 2007 est.)

Debt - external:
$4.837 billion (31 December 2007 est.)

Stock of direct foreign investment - at home:
$4.305 billion (2006 est.)

Stock of direct foreign investment - abroad:
$2.163 billion (2006 est.)

Market value of publicly traded shares:

Currency (code):
Libyan dinar (LYD)

Exchange rates:
Libyan dinars per US dollar - 1.2604 (2007), 1.3108 (2006), 1.3084 (2005), 1.305 (2004), 1.2929 (2003)

Fiscal year:
calendar year

NOTE: The information regarding Libya on this page is re-published from the 2008 World Fact Book of the United States Central Intelligence Agency. No claims are made regarding the accuracy of Libya Economy 2008 information contained here. All suggestions for corrections of any errors about Libya Economy 2008 should be addressed to the CIA.

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This page was last modified 24-May-08
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