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Somalia Economy 2007

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Economy - overview:
Somalia's economic fortunes are driven by its deep political divisions. The northwestern area has declared its independence as the "Republic of Somaliland"; the northeastern region of Puntland is a semi-autonomous state; and the remaining southern portion is riddled with the struggles of rival factions. Economic life continues, in part because much activity is local and relatively easily protected. Agriculture is the most important sector, with livestock normally accounting for about 40% of GDP and about 65% of export earnings, but Saudi Arabia's ban on Somali livestock, due to Rift Valley Fever concerns, has severely hampered the sector. Nomads and semi-nomads, who are dependent upon livestock for their livelihood, make up a large portion of the population. Livestock, hides, fish, charcoal, and bananas are Somalia's principal exports, while sugar, sorghum, corn, qat, and machined goods are the principal imports. Somalia's small industrial sector, based on the processing of agricultural products, has largely been looted and sold as scrap metal. Despite the seeming anarchy, Somalia's service sector has managed to survive and grow. Telecommunication firms provide wireless services in most major cities and offer the lowest international call rates on the continent. In the absence of a formal banking sector, money exchange services have sprouted throughout the country, handling between $500 million and $1 billion in remittances annually. Mogadishu's main market offers a variety of goods from food to the newest electronic gadgets. The Somali Council of Islamic Courts (SCIC) opened Mogadishu's main port and airport - closed for 15 years - as well as most of the ports and airfields in southern Somalia. Hotels continue to operate, and militias provide security. The ongoing civil disturbances and clan rivalries, however, have interfered with any broad-based economic development and international aid arrangements. Somalia's arrears to the IMF continued to grow in 2006. Statistics on Somalia's GDP, growth, per capita income, and inflation should be viewed skeptically. In late December 2004, a major tsunami caused an estimated 150 deaths and resulted in destruction of property in coastal areas.

GDP (purchasing power parity):
$5.259 billion (2006 est.)

GDP (official exchange rate):
$2.483 billion (2006 est.)

GDP - real growth rate:
2.6% (2006 est.)

GDP - per capita (PPP):
$600 (2006 est.)

GDP - composition by sector:
agriculture: 65%
industry: 10%
services: 25% (2000 est.)

Labor force:
3.7 million (few skilled laborers) (1975)

Labor force - by occupation:
agriculture: 71%
industry and services: 29% (1975)

Unemployment rate:

Population below poverty line:

Household income or consumption by percentage share:
lowest 10%: NA%
highest 10%: NA%

Inflation rate (consumer prices):
NA%; note - businesses print their own money, so inflation rates cannot be easily determined

revenues: $NA
expenditures: $NA

Agriculture - products:
bananas, sorghum, corn, coconuts, rice, sugarcane, mangoes, sesame seeds, beans; cattle, sheep, goats; fish

a few light industries, including sugar refining, textiles, wireless communication

Industrial production growth rate:

Electricity - production:
270 million kWh (2005)

Electricity - consumption:
251.1 million kWh (2005)

Electricity - exports:
0 kWh (2005)

Electricity - imports:
0 kWh (2005)

Oil - production:
0 bbl/day (2004 est.)

Oil - consumption:
5,000 bbl/day (2004 est.)

Oil - exports:
NA bbl/day

Oil - imports:
NA bbl/day

Oil - proved reserves:
0 bbl (1 January 2006)

Natural gas - production:
0 cu m (2005 est.)

Natural gas - consumption:
0 cu m (2005 est.)

Natural gas - proved reserves:
5.432 billion cu m (1 January 2006 est.)

$241 million f.o.b. (2004 est.)

Exports - commodities:
livestock, bananas, hides, fish, charcoal, scrap metal

Exports - partners:
UAE 49.9%, Yemen 21.5%, Oman 6% (2006)

$576 million f.o.b. (2004 est.)

Imports - commodities:
manufactures, petroleum products, foodstuffs, construction materials, qat

Imports - partners:
Djibouti 30.8%, Brazil 8.5%, India 8.2%, Kenya 8.1%, Oman 5.5%, UAE 5.2%, Yemen 5% (2006)

Economic aid - recipient:
$236.4 million (2005 est.)

Debt - external:
$3 billion (2001 est.)

Currency (code):
Somali shilling (SOS)

Exchange rates:
Somali shillings per US dollar - 1,438.3 (2006) official rate; the unofficial black market rate was about 23,000 shillings per dollar as of February 2007
note: the Republic of Somaliland, a self-declared independent country not recognized by any foreign government, issues its own currency, the Somaliland shilling

Fiscal year:

NOTE: The information regarding Somalia on this page is re-published from the 2007 World Fact Book of the United States Central Intelligence Agency. No claims are made regarding the accuracy of Somalia Economy 2007 information contained here. All suggestions for corrections of any errors about Somalia Economy 2007 should be addressed to the CIA.

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This page was last modified 29-Sep-09
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