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Saudi Arabia Economy 2007

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Economy - overview:
Saudi Arabia has an oil-based economy with strong government controls over major economic activities. It possesses 25% of the world's proven petroleum reserves, ranks as the largest exporter of petroleum, and plays a leading role in OPEC. The petroleum sector accounts for roughly 75% of budget revenues, 45% of GDP, and 90% of export earnings. About 40% of GDP comes from the private sector. Roughly 5.5 million foreign workers play an important role in the Saudi economy, particularly in the oil and service sectors. The government is encouraging private sector growth to lessen the kingdom's dependence on oil and to increase employment opportunities for the swelling Saudi population. The government is promoting private sector and foreign participation in the power generation, telecom, natural gas, and petrochemical industries. As part of its effort to attract foreign investment and diversify the economy, Saudi Arabia acceded to the WTO in December 2005 after many years of negotiations. With high oil revenues enabling the government to post large budget surpluses, Riyadh has substantially boosted spending on job training and education, infrastructure development, and government salaries. The government has announced plans to establish six "economic cities" in different regions of the country to promote development and diversification.

GDP (purchasing power parity):
$371.5 billion (2006 est.)

GDP (official exchange rate):
$282 billion (2006 est.)

GDP - real growth rate:
4.3% (2006 est.)

GDP - per capita (PPP):
$13,800 (2006 est.)

GDP - composition by sector:
agriculture: 3%
industry: 63.6%
services: 33.4% (2006 est.)

Labor force:
6.311 million
note: more than 35% of the population in the 15-64 age group is non-national (2006 est.)

Labor force - by occupation:
agriculture: 12%
industry: 25%
services: 63% (1999 est.)

Unemployment rate:
13% among Saudi males only (local bank estimate; some estimates range as high as 25%) (2004 est.)

Population below poverty line:

Household income or consumption by percentage share:
lowest 10%: NA%
highest 10%: NA%

Inflation rate (consumer prices):
2.2% (2006 est.)

Investment (gross fixed):
17% of GDP (2006 est.)

revenues: $174.8 billion
expenditures: $104.1 billion (2006 est.)

Public debt:
32.2% of GDP (2006 est.)

Agriculture - products:
wheat, barley, tomatoes, melons, dates, citrus; mutton, chickens, eggs, milk

crude oil production, petroleum refining, basic petrochemicals; ammonia, industrial gases, sodium hydroxide (caustic soda), cement, fertilizer, plastics; metals, commercial ship repair, commercial aircraft repair, construction

Industrial production growth rate:
1.9% (2006 est.)

Electricity - production:
165.6 billion kWh (2005)

Electricity - consumption:
146.9 billion kWh (2005)

Electricity - exports:
0 kWh (2005)

Electricity - imports:
0 kWh (2005)

Oil - production:
9.475 million bbl/day (2005 est.)

Oil - consumption:
1.845 million bbl/day (2004)

Oil - exports:
8.554 million bbl/day (2004)

Oil - imports:
0 bbl/day (2004)

Oil - proved reserves:
264.2 billion bbl (1 January 2006)

Natural gas - production:
68.32 billion cu m (2005 est.)

Natural gas - consumption:
68.32 billion cu m (2005 est.)

Natural gas - exports:
0 cu m (2005 est.)

Natural gas - imports:
0 cu m (2005)

Natural gas - proved reserves:
6.568 trillion cu m (1 January 2006 est.)

Current account balance:
$104.1 billion (2006 est.)

$207.8 billion f.o.b. (2006 est.)

Exports - commodities:
petroleum and petroleum products 90%

Exports - partners:
Japan 17.7%, US 15.8%, South Korea 9%, China 7.2%, Taiwan 4.6%, Singapore 4.4% (2006)

$64.16 billion f.o.b. (2006 est.)

Imports - commodities:
machinery and equipment, foodstuffs, chemicals, motor vehicles, textiles

Imports - partners:
US 12.3%, Germany 8.6%, China 8%, Japan 7.3%, UK 4.9%, Italy 4.8%, South Korea 4.1% (2006)

Economic aid - donor:
since 2000, Saudi Arabia has committed $307 million for assistance to the Palestinians; pledged $230 million to development in Afghanistan; pledged $1 billion in export guarantees and soft loans to Iraq; pledged $133 million in direct grant aid, $187 million in concessional loans, and $153 million in export credits for Pakistan earthquake relief; pledged a total of $1.59 billion to Lebanon in assistance and deposits to the Central Bank of Lebanon in 2006 and pledged an additional $1.1 billion in early 2007

Reserves of foreign exchange and gold:
$27.77 billion (2006 est.)

Debt - external:
$46.6 billion (2006 est.)

Stock of direct foreign investment - at home:

Stock of direct foreign investment - abroad:

Market value of publicly traded shares:
$326.9 billion (2006)

Currency (code):
Saudi riyal (SAR)

Exchange rates:
Saudi riyals per US dollar - 3.745 (2006), 3.747 (2005), 3.75 (2004), 3.75 (2003), 3.75 (2002)

Fiscal year:
calendar year

NOTE: The information regarding Saudi Arabia on this page is re-published from the 2007 World Fact Book of the United States Central Intelligence Agency. No claims are made regarding the accuracy of Saudi Arabia Economy 2007 information contained here. All suggestions for corrections of any errors about Saudi Arabia Economy 2007 should be addressed to the CIA.

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This page was last modified 29-Sep-09
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