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    Iran Index 2005

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    Iran Geography - 2005

      Middle East, bordering the Gulf of Oman, the Persian Gulf, and the Caspian Sea, between Iraq and Pakistan

      Geographic coordinates:
      32 00 N, 53 00 E

      Map references:
      Middle East

      total: 1.648 million sq km
      land: 1.636 million sq km
      water: 12,000 sq km

      Area - comparative:
      slightly larger than Alaska

      Land boundaries:
      total: 5,440 km
      border countries: Afghanistan 936 km, Armenia 35 km, Azerbaijan-proper 432 km, Azerbaijan-Naxcivan exclave 179 km, Iraq 1,458 km, Pakistan 909 km, Turkey 499 km, Turkmenistan 992 km

      2,440 km; note - Iran also borders the Caspian Sea (740 km)

      Maritime claims:
      territorial sea: 12 nm
      contiguous zone: 24 nm
      exclusive economic zone: bilateral agreements or median lines in the Persian Gulf
      continental shelf: natural prolongation

      mostly arid or semiarid, subtropical along Caspian coast

      rugged, mountainous rim; high, central basin with deserts, mountains; small, discontinuous plains along both coasts

      Elevation extremes:
      lowest point: Caspian Sea -28 m
      highest point: Kuh-e Damavand 5,671 m

      Natural resources:
      petroleum, natural gas, coal, chromium, copper, iron ore, lead, manganese, zinc, sulfur

      Land use:
      arable land: 8.72%
      permanent crops: 1.39%
      other: 89.89% (2001)

      Irrigated land:
      75,620 sq km (1998 est.)

      Natural hazards:
      periodic droughts, floods; dust storms, sandstorms; earthquakes

      Environment - current issues:
      air pollution, especially in urban areas, from vehicle emissions, refinery operations, and industrial effluents; deforestation; overgrazing; desertification; oil pollution in the Persian Gulf; wetland losses from drought; soil degradation (salination); inadequate supplies of potable water; water pollution from raw sewage and industrial waste; urbanization

      Environment - international agreements:
      party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Marine Dumping, Ozone Layer Protection, Wetlands
      signed, but not ratified: Environmental Modification, Law of the Sea, Marine Life Conservation

      Geography - note:
      strategic location on the Persian Gulf and Strait of Hormuz, which are vital maritime pathways for crude oil transport

      NOTE: The information regarding Iran on this page is re-published from the 2005 World Fact Book of the United States Central Intelligence Agency. No claims are made regarding the accuracy of Iran Geography 2005 information contained here. All suggestions for corrections of any errors about Iran Geography 2005 should be addressed to the CIA.

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    Revised 16-Feb-06
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