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    Germany Index 2005

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    Germany Geography - 2005

      Central Europe, bordering the Baltic Sea and the North Sea, between the Netherlands and Poland, south of Denmark

      Geographic coordinates:
      51 00 N, 9 00 E

      Map references:

      total: 357,021 sq km
      land: 349,223 sq km
      water: 7,798 sq km

      Area - comparative:
      slightly smaller than Montana

      Land boundaries:
      total: 3,621 km
      border countries: Austria 784 km, Belgium 167 km, Czech Republic 646 km, Denmark 68 km, France 451 km, Luxembourg 138 km, Netherlands 577 km, Poland 456 km, Switzerland 334 km

      2,389 km

      Maritime claims:
      territorial sea: 12 nm
      exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
      continental shelf: 200-m depth or to the depth of exploitation

      temperate and marine; cool, cloudy, wet winters and summers; occasional warm mountain (foehn) wind

      lowlands in north, uplands in center, Bavarian Alps in south

      Elevation extremes:
      lowest point: Neuendorf bei Wilster -3.54 m
      highest point: Zugspitze 2,963 m

      Natural resources:
      coal, lignite, natural gas, iron ore, copper, nickel, uranium, potash, salt, construction materials, timber, arable land

      Land use:
      arable land: 33.85%
      permanent crops: 0.59%
      other: 65.56% (2001)

      Irrigated land:
      4,850 sq km (1998 est.)

      Natural hazards:

      Environment - current issues:
      emissions from coal-burning utilities and industries contribute to air pollution; acid rain, resulting from sulfur dioxide emissions, is damaging forests; pollution in the Baltic Sea from raw sewage and industrial effluents from rivers in eastern Germany; hazardous waste disposal; government established a mechanism for ending the use of nuclear power over the next 15 years; government working to meet EU commitment to identify nature preservation areas in line with the EU's Flora, Fauna, and Habitat directive

      Environment - international agreements:
      party to: Air Pollution, Air Pollution-Nitrogen Oxides, Air Pollution-Persistent Organic Pollutants, Air Pollution-Sulfur 85, Air Pollution-Sulfur 94, Air Pollution-Volatile Organic Compounds, Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Antarctic-Marine Living Resources, Antarctic Seals, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands, Whaling
      signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements

      Geography - note:
      strategic location on North European Plain and along the entrance to the Baltic Sea

      NOTE: The information regarding Germany on this page is re-published from the 2005 World Fact Book of the United States Central Intelligence Agency. No claims are made regarding the accuracy of Germany Geography 2005 information contained here. All suggestions for corrections of any errors about Germany Geography 2005 should be addressed to the CIA.

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    Revised 16-Feb-06
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