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32. 1997 Economic Census





962. Electric Utility Industry -- Net Generation, Net Summer Capability, Generating Units, and Consumption of Fuels

[Net generation for calendar years; other data as of December 31.

 
Item Unit 1980 1981 1982 1983 1984 1985 1986 1987 1988 1989 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998
60 12 12 12 12 60 12 12 36 12 12 12 12 12 12 12 12 12 12
 
RETAIL SALES
 
    Retail sales, total Bil. kWh 2094 (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) 2324 (NA) (NA) 2578 2647 2713 2762 2763 2861 2935 3013.411 3098 3139.761 3239.818
Net generation by electric utilities Bil. kWh 2286 (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) 2470 (NA) (NA) 2704 2784 2808 2825 2797 2883 2911 2995 3077 3122.523 3212.171
Purchases by utilities from nonutility
purchasers Bil. kWh 1 (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) 26 (NA) (NA) 68 90 116 139 166 189 209 222.115 229 243.213 258.534
Imports Bil. kWh 25 (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) 46 (NA) (NA) 39 26 23 31 37 39 52 46.76 47 (NA) (NA)
Exports Bil. kWh 4 (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) 5 (NA) (NA) 7 15 21 9 9 11 8 9.146 9 (NA) (NA)
Losses and unaccounted for Bil. kWh 214 (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) 212 (NA) (NA) 226 238 214 225 229 238 223 232 277 (NA) (NA)
 
NET GENERATION
 
    Total Bil. kWh 2286 2295 2241 2310 2416 2470 2487 2572 2704 2784 2808 2825 2797 2883 2911 2995 3077 3122.523 3212.171
  Average annual change 1 Percent 3.515551368 0.392992151 -2.378704152 3.036367975 4.49497325 1.549290971 0.686097481 3.365374411 3.020929722 2.91920341 0.858681445 0.603739668 -0.995681733 3.032224997 0.966913953 2.84813128 2.7 1.5 2.9
Net generation, kWh per kW of net
  summer capability 2 Rate 3950.916004 3835.868293 3651.621313 3719.207857 3804.125335 3769.84127 3740.974729 3815.457647 3989.966062 4064.233577 4066.618392 4076.479076 4023.881456 4118.571429 4147 4248 4333 (NA) (NA)
 
Investor owned Bil. kWh 1783 1786 1712 1764 1849 1918 1928 2022 2146 2192 2203 2213 2214 2271 (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA)
  Percent of total utilities Percent 78 77.8 76.4 76.4 76.5 77.7 77.5 78.6 79.4 78.7 78.4 78.4 79.2 78.8 (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA)
Publicly owned Bil. kWh 503 509 530 546 567 552 559 550 559 592 606 610 582 611 (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA)
  Municipal Bil. kWh 87 81 77 73 75 74 79 86 97 100 98 97 94 103 (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA)
  Federal Bil. kWh 235 232 241 258 254 233 225 205 201 224 235 241 225 232 (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA)
  Cooperatives and other Bil. kWh 182 196 212 215 239 245 255 258 261 269 273 272 263 276 (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA)
 
Source of energy:
  Coal 3 Percent 50.83114611 52.7 53.4 54.8 55.9 56.7611336 56.2 57.4 57.4 56.2 55.55555556 54.90265487 56.34608509 56.85050295 56.16626589 55.19198664 57 57.25517474 56.26973159
  Nuclear Percent 10.97987752 11.9 12.6 12.7 13.6 15.5465587 16.6 17.7 19.5 19 20.54843305 21.69911504 22.13085449 21.15851544 21.98557197 22.47078464 22 20.13256588 20.97341642
  Oil Percent 10.76115486 9 6.5 6.3 5 4.048582996 5.5 4.6 5.5 5.7 4.166666667 3.92920354 3.181980694 3.468609088 3.126073514 2.03672788 2 2.490069729 3.429394014
  Gas Percent 15.13560805 15.1 13.6 11.9 12.3 11.82186235 10 10.6 9.3 9.6 9.401709402 9.345132743 9.438684305 8.983697537 9.996564754 10.25041736 9 9.083199707 9.62657343
  Hydro Percent 12.07349081 11.4 13.8 14.4 13.3 11.37651822 11.7 9.7 8.2 9.5 10.07834758 9.911504425 8.723632463 9.330558446 8.485056682 9.883138564 11 10.92939908 9.614805687
 
Type of prime mover:4
  Hydro Bil. kWh 276 261 309 332 321 281 291 250 223 265 280 276 240 265 244 294 328 337.234 304.403
  Steam conventional 5 Bil. kWh 1726 1730 1628 1661 1742 1778 1756 1837 1921 1950 1919 1905 1908 1964 1982 1977 2018 2094.127 2158.105
  Gas turbine and internal combustion Bil. kWh 28 25 16 17 17 16 15 18 22 29 14 22 21 25 36 44 49 55.05 68.7555
  Steam nuclear Bil. kWh 251 273 283 294 328 384 414 455 527 529 577 613 619 610 640 673 675 628.644 673.702
  Other Bil. kWh 6 6 5 6 9 11 12 12 12 11 11 10 10 10 9 6 7 (NA) (NA)
 
NET SUMMER CAPABILITY
 
      Total 6 Mil. kW 578.6 598.3 613.7 621.1 635.1 655.2 664.8 674.1 677.7 685 690.5 693 695.1 700 702.2 705.3 710 (NA) 686.692
Hydro Mil. kW 81.7 82.4 83 83.9 85.3 88.9 89.3 89.7 90.3 90.6 91 92 93 95.9 96 97 94 (NA) 94.423
Steam conventional 7 Mil. kW 396.6 410.7 421.4 424.9 430.8 436.8 440.6 440.3 442.4 444 448 447 447 447 446 446 442 (NA) 422.581
Gas turbine Mil. kW 42.5 43.2 43.5 43.3 43.5 43.9 43.4 44.2 43.9 45.3 46 48 50 52 55 57 53 (NA) 52.599
Steam nuclear Mil. kW 51.7 55.9 59.9 63 69.7 79.4 85.2 93.6 94.7 97.9 100 100 99 99 99 99 101 (NA) 97.07
Internal combustion Mil. kW 5.2 5.3 4.8 4.7 4.5 4.7 4.6 4.8 4.7 4.6 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 (NA) 4.855
Geothermal and other Mil. kW 0.9 0.9 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.6 1.6 1.5 1.7 1.7 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 (NA) 1.55
Combined cycle Mil. kW (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) 14 (NA) 13.585
 
NUMBER OF GENERATING UNITS
 
    Prime movers, total 8 Number 11084 (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) 10611 10406 10305 10325 10296 10260 10221 10471 10427 10396 10422 (NA) 10207
Hydro Number 3275 (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) 3489 3488 3496 3479 3479 3476 3497 3388 3362 3337 3480 3346 3406
Steam conventional Number 2862 (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) 2536 2437 2383 2363 2354 2284 2307 2221 2170 2157 2153 (NA) 2022
Gas turbine Number 1447 (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) 1439 1408 1397 1438 1460 1485 1501 1411 1446 1486 1542 (NA) 1490
Steam nuclear Number 74 (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) 99 109 108 110 111 111 109 109 109 109 110 110 104
Internal combustion Number 3410 (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) 2998 2917 2872 2889 2847 2803 2807 2976 2953 2920 2884 (NA) 2929
Other Number 16 (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) 50 47 49 46 45 101 0 366 387 (NA) 253 (NA) (NA)
 
CONSUMPTION OF FUELS
 
    Net generation by fuel 9 Quad. Btu 18.56 (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) 18.79 (NA) (NA) 20.12 20.54 20.32 20.07 19.99 20.58 20.92 20.92 21.44 (NA) (NA)
 
Coal Quad. Btu 12.12 (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) 14.54 (NA) (NA) 15.85 15.99 16.19 16.03 16.21 16.79 16.9 16.99 17.906 18.44 18.72
Petroleum Quad. Btu 2.63 (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) 1.09 (NA) (NA) 1.56 1.69 1.25 1.18 0.95 1.05 0.97 0.658 0.734 0.84 1.17
Gas Quad. Btu 3.81 (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) 3.16 (NA) (NA) 2.71 2.87 2.88 2.86 2.83 2.74 3.05 3.276 2.805 3.03 3.32
 
Fuel consumed:
  Coal Mil. sh. tons 569 (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) 694 (NA) (NA) 758.4 766.9 773.5 772.3 779.9 813.5 817.3 829.2 874.681 900.361 911
  Oil Mil. bbl. 421 (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) 174.6 (NA) (NA) 250.1 270 200.2 188.5 152.3 168.6 155.4 102 113.274 125.146 179
  Gas Bil cu. ft 3682 (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) 3044 (NA) (NA) 2635.6 2787 2787.3 2789 2765.6 2682.4 2987.1 3197 2732.107 2968.453 3258


NA Not available.
1 Change from immediate prior year except for 1970, change from 1960. For explanation of average annual percent change, see Guide to Tabular Presentation.
2 Net summer capability is the steady hourly output that generating equipment is expected to supply to system load, exclusive of auxiliary power as demonstrated by test at the time of summer peak demand.
3 Includes small percentage (.5%) from wood and waste, geothermal, and and petroleum coke.
4 A prime mover is the engine, turbine, water wheel, or similar machine which drives an electric generator.
5 Fossil fuels only.
6 Includes wind, solar thermal, photovoltaic and combined cycle not shown separately.
7 Includes fossil steam, wood, and waste.
8 Each prime mover type in combination plants counted separately. Includes geothermal, wind, and solar, not shown separately.
9 Includes small amounts of wood, waste, wind, geothermal, solar thermal, and photovoltaic. Source: 1970, U.S. Federal Power Commission, Electric Power Statistics, and press releases; thereafter, U.S. Energy Information Administration, 1975 and 1980, Power Production, Fuel Consumption, and Installed Capacity Data-Annual, and unpublished data; thereafter, Electric Power Annual, Annual Energy Review, and unpublished data. http://www.eia.doe.gov/bookshelf/electric.html TERMS

Electric Utility: A corporation, person, agency, authority, or other legal entity or instrumentality that owns and/or operates facilities within the United States, its territories, or Puerto Rico for the generation, transmission, distribution, or sale of electric energy primarily for use by the public and files forms listed in the Code of Federal Regulations, Title 18, Part 141. Facilities that qualify as cogenerators or small power producers under the Public Utility Regulatory Policies Act (PURPA) are not considered electric utilities.

Energy: The capacity for doing work as measured by the capability of doing work (potential energy) or the conversion of this capability to motion (kinetic energy). Energy has several forms, some of which are easily convertible and can be changed to another form useful for work. Most of the world's convertible energy comes from fossil fuels that are burned to produce heat that is then used as a transfer medium to mechanical or other means in order to accomplish tasks. Electrical energy is usually measured in kilowatthours, while heat energy is usually measured in British thermal units.

Gas Turbine Plant: A plant in which the prime mover is a gas turbine. A gas turbine consists typically of an axial-flow air compressor, one or more combustion chambers, where liquid or gaseous fuel is burned and the hot gases are passed to the turbine and where the hot gases expand to drive the generator and are then used to run the compressor.

Generating Unit: Any combination of physically connected generator(s), reactor(s), boiler(s), combustion turbine(s), or other prime mover(s) operated together to produce electric power.

Generation (Electricity): The process of producing electric energy by transforming other forms of energy; also, the amount of electric energy produced, expressed in watthours (Wh).

Gross Generation: The total amount of electric energy produced by the generating units at a generating station or stations, measured at the generator terminals.

Net Generation: Gross generation less the electric energy consumed at the generating station for station use.

Geothermal Plant: A plant in which the prime mover is a steam turbine. The turbine is driven either by steam produced from hot water or by natural steam that derives its energy from heat found in rocks or fluids at various depths beneath the surface of the earth. The energy is extracted by drilling and/or pumping.

Hydroelectric Plant: A plant in which the turbine generators are driven by falling water.

Internal Combustion Plant: A plant in which the prime mover is an internal combustion engine. An internal combustion engine has one or more cylinders in which the process of combustion takes place, converting energy released from the rapid burning of a fuel-air mixture into mechanical energy. Diesel or gas-fired engines are the principal types used in electric plants. The plant is usually operated during periods of high demand for electricity.

Net Generation: Gross generation minus plant use from all electric utility owned plants. The energy required for pumping at a pumped-storage plant is regarded as plant use and must be deducted from the gross generation.

Net Summer Capability: The steady hourly output, which generating equipment is expected to supply to system load exclusive of auxiliary power, as demonstrated by tests at the time of summer peak demand.

Nonutility Power Producer: A corporation, person, agency, authority, or other legal entity or instrumentality that owns electric generating capacity and is not an electric utility. Nonutility power producers include qualifying cogenerators, qualifying small power pro ducers, and other nonutility generators (including independent power producers) without a designated franchised service area, and which do not file forms listed in the Code of Federal Regulations, Title 18, Part 141.

Nuclear Fuel: Fissionable materials that have been enriched to such a composition that, when placed in a nuclear reactor, will support a self-sustaining fission chain reaction, producing heat in a controlled manner for process use.

Nuclear Power Plant: A facility in which heat produced in a reactor by the fissioning of nuclear fuel is used to drive a steam turbine.

Operable Nuclear Unit: A nuclear unit is :q.operable:eq. after it completes low-power testing and is granted authorization to operate at full power. This occurs when it receives its full power amendment to its operating license from the Nuclear Regulatory Commission.

Power: The rate at which energy is transferred. Electrical energy is usually measured in watts. Also used for a measurement of capacity.

Price: The amount of money or consideration-in-kind for which a service is bought, sold, or offered for sale.

Prime Mover: The engine, turbine, water wheel, or similar machine that drives an electric generator; or, for reporting purposes, a device that converts energy to electricity directly (e.g., photovoltaic solar and fuel cell(s)).

Retail: Sales covering electrical energy supplied for residential, commercial, and industrial end-use purposes. Other small classes, such as agriculture and street lighting, also are included in this category.

Revenue: The total amount of money received by a firm from sales of its products and/or services, gains from the sales or exchange of assets, interest and dividends earned on investments, and other increases in the owner's equity except those arising from capital adjustments.

Sales: The amount of kilowatthours sold in a given period of time; usually grouped by classes of service, such as residential, commercial, industrial, and other. Other sales include public street and highway lighting, other sales to public authorities and railways, and interdepartmental sales.

Steam-Electric Plant (Conventional): A plant in which the prime mover is a steam turbine. The steam used to drive the turbine is produced in a boiler where fossil fuels are burned.

Turbine: A machine for generating rotary mechanical power from the energy of a stream of fluid (such as water, steam, or hot gas). Turbines convert the kinetic energy of fluids to mechanical energy through the principles of impulse and reaction, or a mixture of the two.



https://allcountries.org/uscensus/962_electric_utility_industry_net_generation_net.html

These tables are based on figures supplied by the United States Census Bureau, U.S. Department of Commerce and are subject to revision by the Census Bureau.

Copyright © 2006 Photius Coutsoukis and Information Technology Associates, all rights reserved.