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32. 1997 Economic Census





948. Energy Expenditures and Average Fuel Prices, by Source and Sector

[82,862 represents $82,862,000,000. For definition of Btu, see text, this section. End-use sector and electric utilities exclude expenditures and prices on energy sources such as hydropower, solar, wind, and geothermal. Also excludes expenditures for reported amounts of energy consumed by the energy industry for production, transportation, and processing operations]

 
Source and Sector 1970 1971 1972 1973 1974 1975 1976 1977 1978 1979 1980 1981 1982 1983 1984 1985 1986 1987 1988 1989 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1994 1995 1996 1997
 
EXPENDITURES (mil. dol.)
 
    Total 1 2 82,862 89,781 97,801 111,591 153,078 171,828 193,799 220,393 239,033 297,199 374,359 427,769 426,187 417,124 434,460 437,292 382,766 395,689 409,468 436,463 471,786 469,505 474,515 491,904 505,518 505,518 515,321 561,473 567,318
Natural gas 10,891 12,065 13,198 13,933 16,380 20,061 25,097 29,602 33,185 40,785 51,061 60,544 68,292 72,000 77,169 72,938 59,702 58,019 61,089 65,383 64,102 64,697 68,400 75,941 77,716 77,716 74,150 85,634 91,769
Petroleum products 2 47,942 52,030 55,866 65,257 96,943 103,372 116,008 131,694 138,554 183,766 237,628 264,957 242,279 221,359 225,243 223,591 174,785 187,340 189,824 206,739 235,224 222,706 221,829 222,936 229,804 229,804 236,937 268,071 266,595
  Motor gasoline 31,596 33,478 35,346 39,667 54,194 59,446 64,977 70,591 74,513 95,916 124,408 138,138 130,305 115,816 114,438 118,043 91,526 99,803 103,206 112,586 126,454 123,048 125,156 126,401 129,897 129,897 136,475 148,230 149,549
Coal 4,594 4,883 5,412 6,251 11,145 13,047 14,079 15,448 17,595 20,421 22,648 26,231 26,426 27,051 29,093 29,723 27,895 27,566 28,365 28,105 28,372 27,871 27,409 27,763 27,186 27,186 26,861 27,368 27,522
Electricity sales 23,345 26,208 29,718 33,780 42,589 50,680 56,971 66,225 74,164 82,050 98,095 116,455 127,393 134,731 142,420 149,233 151,793 154,685 162,063 169,332 176,737 184,814 186,954 196,579 200,883 200,883 205,932 211,011 213,645
 
Residential sector 20,151 21,933 24,129 27,078 32,494 36,988 41,668 47,540 51,780 57,929 69,523 78,795 87,742 93,076 96,170 99,009 96,766 98,160 103,369 109,040 110,057 115,527 115,902 125,019 126,963 126,963 128,423 137,628 138,691
Commercial sector 10,654 11,999 13,428 15,107 19,480 22,839 26,308 30,575 33,407 38,753 46,888 55,393 61,261 64,748 69,312 70,267 68,132 68,650 71,472 75,308 78,828 81,373 82,296 86,474 89,409 89,409 91,587 95,798 100,209
Industrial sector 16,678 18,035 20,038 23,502 36,636 41,068 47,939 56,119 61,732 77,687 94,268 108,451 103,406 102,179 110,235 106,835 91,716 91,451 92,639 95,205 102,336 101,122 103,545 105,563 109,112 109,112 107,732 120,005 119,786
Transportation sector 2 35,379 37,813 40,207 45,904 64,468 70,933 77,884 86,159 92,115 122,831 163,680 185,130 173,778 157,121 158,743 161,182 126,152 137,429 141,988 156,909 180,565 171,482 172,772 174,847 180,034 180,034 187,578 208,041 208,632
  Motor gasoline 30,525 32,435 34,365 38,598 52,820 57,992 63,480 69,059 73,013 94,013 121,809 135,394 127,949 113,843 112,044 115,199 89,404 97,514 100,986 110,168 123,742 120,554 122,697 124,549 127,942 127,942 134,471 145,993 147,046
Electric utilities -4,316 5,441 6,473 7,817 14,391 -16,396 18,923 23,392 25,746 31,031 -37,435 -43,275 -41,311 -41,336 -43,378 -42,558 -35,793 -36,692 -37,435 -38,995 -38,276 -36,534 -35,817 -36,692 -36,166 -36,166 -34,810 -36,614 -37,815
 
AVERAGE FUEL PRICES
(dol per mil Btu)
    All sectors 1.65 1.76 1.84 2.02 2.87 3.33 3.57 3.99 4.24 5.22 6.89 8.03 8.46 8.39 8.28 8.36 7.30 7.33 7.26 7.61 8.29 8.24 8.17 8.27 8.31 8.31 8.29 8.77 8.82
 
Residential sector 2.11 2.26 2.39 2.73 3.40 3.81 4.16 4.80 5.18 6.05 7.44 8.79 9.74 10.63 10.69 10.93 10.78 10.75 10.70 11.05 11.91 12.09 12.00 12.29 12.63 12.63 12.57 12.68 13.24
Commercial sector 1.96 2.15 2.33 2.56 3.42 4.09 4.40 5.15 5.54 6.31 7.88 9.55 10.43 11.01 11.20 11.71 11.30 11.04 10.90 11.38 12.02 12.20 12.31 12.68 12.87 12.87 12.75 12.88 13.15
Industrial sector 0.98 0.91 0.98 1.09 1.76 2.12 2.43 2.78 3.03 3.63 5.15 5.74 6.46 6.52 6.31 6.27 5.62 5.03 4.51 4.64 5.25 5.13 4.87 4.99 4.92 4.92 4.74 5.49 5.20
Transportation sector 2.31 2.37 2.38 2.57 3.70 4.02 4.21 4.48 4.59 6.19 8.61 9.84 9.43 8.44 8.25 8.26 6.22 6.58 6.56 7.17 8.27 7.99 7.91 7.87 7.88 7.88 8.04 8.72 8.65
Electric utilities 0.32 0.38 0.41 0.46 0.86 0.96 1.02 1.16 1.25 1.48 1.75 2.00 2.01 1.98 1.97 1.85 1.55 1.51 1.45 1.48 1.46 1.37 1.34 1.35 1.30 1.30 1.23 1.28 1.30





1 Includes electricity sales; excludes electricity generation
2 Includes sources or fuel types, not shown separately

Source: U.S. Energy Information Administration, State Energy Price and Expenditure Report, annual.

http://www.eia.doe.gov/emeu/sep/states.html The five economic sectors:

Residential Sector The residential sector is considered to consist of all private residences, whether occupied or vacant, owned or rented, including single- family homes, multifamily housing units, and mobile homes. Secondary homes, such as summer homes, are also included. Institutional housing, such as school dormitories, hospitals, and military barracks, generally are not included in the residential sector; they are included in the commercial sector.

Commercial Sector The commercial sector, as defined economi- cally, consists of business establishments that are not engaged in transportation or in manufacturing or other types of industrial ac- tivity (agriculture, mining, or construction). Commercial establishments include hotels, motels, restaurants, wholesale busi- nesses, retail stores, laundries, and other service enterprises; religious and nonprofit organizations; health, social, and educa- tional institutions; and Federal, State, and local governments. Street lights, pumps, bridges, and public services are also included if the establishment operating them is considered commercial.

Industrial Sector The industrial sector comprises manufacturing industries, which make up the largest part of the sector, along with mining, construction, agriculture, fisheries, and forestry. Estab- lishments in the sector range from steel mills, to small farms, to companies assembling electronic components.

Transportation Sector The transportation sector consists of private and public vehicles that move people and commodities. Included are automobiles, trucks, buses, motorcycles, railroads and railways (including streetcars), aircraft, ships, barges, and natural gas pipelines.

Electric Utility Sector The electric utility sector consists of pri- vately and publicly owned establishments that generate, transmit, distribute, or sell electricity primarily for use by the public and meet the definition of an electric utility. Nonutility power producers are not included in the electric utility sector. Although end- use allocations of energy consumption and expenditures follow those guidelines as closely as possible, some data are collected by using different classifications. For example, electric utilities often classify commercial and industrial users by the quantity of electricity purchases rather than by the business activity of the purchaser. Agricul- tural use of natural gas is collected and reported in the commercial sector, rather than in the industrial sector. Since agricultural use of natural gas cannot be identified separately, it remains in the commercial sector in this report. Another example is master- metered condomini- ums, apartments, and buildings with a combination of residential and commercial units. In many cases, billing and metering practices cause residential energy usage of electricity, natural gas, or fuel oil to be in- cluded in the commercial sector. In those cases, there is no basis for separating residential from commercial use. Readers are advised to con- sult the SEDR documentation for specific assumptions regarding the consumption estimates.

Where prices for an energy source and sector are not available, compa- rable prices are substituted. For example, the transportation sector motor gasoline prices are also applied to the commercial and industrial sectors. In some cases, the average of adjacent States prices is assigned to a missing State price. The documentation elaborates on these price assumptions.

Except where specified, it is not generally possible to describe the prices in this report as wholesale or retail. The prices paid in each con- suming sector are actually a combination of both sets of prices, depending on a number of closely interrelated factors, and the data re- flect the combination of prices actually paid by each sector. Almost all residential sector prices are close to retail prices, reflecting the relatively small quantities of individual purchases and the increased costs of extensive, diffuse, and multilayered distribution systems. Similarly, in the transportation sector almost everyone pays the same retail- like price for motor gasoline, regardless of volume purchased or location of purchase.

Conversely, residual fuel oil prices in the transportation sector are certainly more wholesale- like as a result of large deliveries to bulk facilities in major ports. In the same manner, most large industrial and many large commer- cial expenditures can be thought of as near wholesale, frequently involving direct access to a producer or bulk distribution facility for very large quantities. Many smaller industrial and commercial facilities pay some- thing much closer to retail prices as a result of the small quantities involved and their institutional distance from primary suppliers. Nota- ble exceptions to these relationships include natural gas and electric utilities, which typically establish fixed rates for each of several classes of service, depending on representative quantities, service factors, and distribution expenses.



https://allcountries.org/uscensus/948_energy_expenditures_and_average_fuel_prices.html

These tables are based on figures supplied by the United States Census Bureau, U.S. Department of Commerce and are subject to revision by the Census Bureau.

Copyright © 2006 Photius Coutsoukis and Information Technology Associates, all rights reserved.