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32. 1997 Economic Census
NA Not available. (Z) Less than 0.05.
1 Break-in-series. See source, appendix for details.
Source: U.S. Bureau of Economic Analysis, Survey of Current Business, October 1997, September 1998, and July 1999 issues.
http://www.bea.doc.gov/bea/ai1.htm U.S. MNCs
U.S. multinational company. The U.S. parent and its foreign affiliates.
U.S. parent. A person, resident in the United States, who owns or controls 10 percentor more ofthevotingsecurities,or the equivalent, of a foreign business enterprise. Person is broadly defined to include any individual, branch, partnership, associated group, association, estate, trust, corporation or other organization (whether organized or not under the laws of any State), or any government entity. If incorporated, the U.S. parent is the fully consolidated
U.S. enterprise consisting of (1) the U.S. corporation whose voting securities are not owned more than 50 percent by another U.S. corporation and (2) proceeding down each ownership chain from that U.S. corporation, any U.S. corporation (including Foreign Sales Corporations located within the United States) whose voting securities are more than 50 percent owned by the U.S. corporation above it. A U.S. parent comprises the domestic operations of a U.S. MNC, covering operations in the 50 States, the District of Colombia, the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico, and all other U.S. areas. U.S. direct investment abroad (USDIA). The ownership or control, directly or indirectly, by one U.S. resident of 10 percent or more of the voting securities of an incorporated foreign business enterprise or the equivalent interest in an unincorporated business enterprise.
Foreign affiliate. A foreign business enterprise in which there is U.S. direct investment, that is, in which a U.S. person owns or controls (directly or indirectly) 10 percent or more of the voting securities or the equivalent. Foreign affiliates comprise the foreign operations of a U.S. MNC over which the parent is presumed to have a degree of managerial influence.
Majority-owned foreign affiliate (MOFA).Aforeignaffiliate in which the combined ownership of all U.S. parents exceeds 50 percent. MOFAs comprise the foreign operations of a U.S. MNC that are controlled by the parent or parents.
Operations of U.S. MNCs
Gross product. The contribution to host-country gross domestic product, which is the goods and services produced by labor and property located in that country. Gross product, often referred to as value added, can be measured as gross output (sales or receipts and other operating income plus inventory change) minus intermediate inputs (purchased goods and services). Alternatively, it can be measured as the sum of the costs incurred (except for intermediate inputs) and the profits earned in production. The gross product estimates presented here were prepared by summing cost and profit data collected in the annual and benchmark surveys of USDIA.For the derivation of the current-dollar estimates of gross product, see Raymond J. Mataloni, Jr., and Lee Goldberg, Gross Product of U.S. Multinational Companies, 197791, SURVEY 74 (February 1994): 57. Profit-type return. Profits from the production of goods and services in the current period. It is measured before income taxes, and it excludes nonoperating items (such as special charges and capital gains and losses) and income from equity investments.
Capital expenditures. Expenditures made to acquire, add to, or improve property, plant, and equipment (PP&E). PP&E includes land, timber, mineral and like-rights owned, structures, machinery, equipment, special tools, and other depreciable property; construction in progress; and tangible and intangible exploration and development costs. Changes in PP&E due to changes in entitysuch as mergers, acquisitions, and divestituresor to changes in accounting principles are excluded. Capital expenditures are measured on a gross basis; sales and other dispositions of fixed assets are not netted against them.
Employment. The number of full-time and part-time employees on the payroll at yearend. If a parent or affiliates employment was unusually high or low because of temporary factors (for example, a strike) or large seasonal variations, the number that reflected normal operations or an average for the year was requested.
Origin of output. In this article, this term refers to the decomposition of a firms output (sales plus inventory change) into the output that originates within the firm and the output that originates elsewhere and that is incorporated in the intermediate inputs purchased by the firm. The intermediate inputs can also be decomposed into those that are purchased locally and those that are purchased from abroad. *
These tables are based on figures supplied by the United States Census Bureau, U.S. Department of Commerce and are subject to revision by the Census Bureau.
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