uscensus banner
| MAIN | SEARCH | FEEDBACK | FAQ | GLOSSARY | COUNTRIES | MAPS | ITA HOME PAGE |

Custom Search

MAIN CATEGORIES:
1. Population
2. Vital Statistics
3. Health and Nutrition
4. Education
5. Law Enforcement, Courts
and Prisons
6. Geography and Environment
7. Parks, Recreation, Travel
8. Elections
9. State and Local Government
Finances and Employment
10. Federal Government
Finances and Employment
11. National Defense and
Veterans Affairs
12. Social Insurance and Human
Services
13. Labor Force, Employment,
and Earnings
14. Income, Expenditures, and
Wealth
15. Prices
16. Banking, Finance, and
Insurance
17. Business Enterprise
18. Communications and
Information Technology
19. Energy
20. Science and Technology
21. Transportation - Land
22. Transportation - Air
and Water
23. Agriculture
24. Natural Resources
25. Construction and Housing
26. Manufactures
27. Domestic Trade and
Services
28. Foreign Commerce and Aid
29. Outlying Areas
30. Comparative International
Statistics
31. Industrial Outlook
32. 1997 Economic Census





759. Persons Below Poverty Level, by State

[Based on the Current Population Survey (CPS), except columns so designated as census. The CPS is designed tocollect reliable data on income primarily at the national level and secondarily at the regional level. When the income data are tabulated by state, the estimates are considered less reliable and, therefore, particular caution should be used when trying to interpret the results; for additional detail, see source]

 
Number below poverty level (1,000) Number below poverty level (1,000) Number below poverty level (1,000) Number below poverty level (1,000) Number below poverty level (1,000) Percent below poverty level Percent below poverty level Percent below poverty level Percent below poverty level Percent below poverty level
State
1969 1979 1989 1969 1979 1989
CENSUS CENSUS CENSUS 1980 1981 1982 1983 1984 1985 1986 19871 1988 1989 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 CENSUS CENSUS CENSUS 1980 1981 1982 1983 1984 1985 1986 19871 1988 1989 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999
 
    United States................................................................................... 27,125 27,393 31,743 29,272 31,822 34,398 35,303 33,700 33,064 32,370 32,221 31,745 31,528 33,585 35,708 36,880 39,265 38,059 36,425 36,529 35,574 34,476 32,258 13.7 12.4 13.1 13.0 14.0 15.0 15.2 14.4 14.0 13.6 13.4 13.0 12.8 13.5 14.2 14.5 15.1 14.5 13.8 13.7 13.3 12.7 11.8
 
Alabama................................................................................... 857 720 724 810 935 849 904 738 821 959 851 775 770 779 786 715 725 704 882 595 665 609 671 25.4 18.9 18.3 21.2 24.1 21.6 22.9 19.1 20.6 23.8 21.3 19.3 18.9 19.2 18.8 17.1 17.4 16.4 20.1 14.0 15.7 14.5 15.1
Alaska................................................................................... 35 42 48 36 36 46 61 49 45 59 60 53 51 57 62 53 52 61 45 54 56 60 47 12.6 10.7 9 9.6 9.0 10.6 12.4 9.6 8.7 11.4 12.0 11.0 10.5 11.4 11.8 10.0 9.1 10.2 7.1 8.2 8.8 9.4 7.6
Arizona................................................................................... 264 351 564 354 323 408 476 569 345 484 444 491 502 484 532 554 615 673 700 980 797 812 579 15.3 13.2 15.7 12.8 11.7 14.8 16.5 18.2 10.7 14.3 12.8 14.1 14.1 13.7 14.8 15.1 15.4 15.9 16.1 20.5 17.2 16.6 12.0
Arkansas................................................................................... 523 424 437 484 541 527 493 564 541 499 537 527 442 472 425 424 484 369 376 449 515 377 375 27.8 19 19.1 21.5 24.1 23.8 21.6 23.9 22.9 21.3 21.8 21.6 18.3 19.6 17.3 17.4 20.0 15.3 14.9 17.2 19.7 14.7 14.7
California................................................................................... 2,153 2,627 3,628 2,619 3,216 3,475 3,743 3,375 3,596 3,453 3,443 3,687 3,772 4,128 4,825 4,925 5,803 5,658 5,342 5,472 5,459 5,118 4,677 11.1 11.4 12.5 11.0 13.3 14.1 14.9 13.2 13.6 12.7 12.3 13.2 12.9 13.9 15.7 15.8 18.2 17.9 16.7 16.9 16.6 15.4 13.8
Colorado................................................................................... 263 285 375 247 285 387 387 274 324 426 398 405 393 461 347 353 354 335 335 412 320 363 351 12.3 10.1 11.7 8.6 9.6 12.6 12.5 8.9 10.2 13.5 12.5 12.5 12.1 13.7 10.4 10.6 9.9 9.0 8.8 10.6 8.2 9.2 8.3
Connecticut................................................................................... 212 243 217 255 254 254 274 218 237 186 207 128 90 196 287 303 277 344 318 392 282 310 235 7.2 8 6.8 8.3 8.2 8.1 8.7 6.9 7.6 6.0 6.6 4.0 2.9 6.0 8.6 9.4 8.5 10.8 9.7 11.7 8.6 9.5 7.1
Delaware................................................................................... 58 68 56 68 72 70 51 63 71 79 42 57 68 48 53 55 73 57 74 63 72 80 79 10.9 11.9 8.7 11.8 12.3 11.5 8.5 10.3 11.4 12.4 6.6 8.6 10.0 6.9 7.5 7.6 10.2 8.3 10.3 8.6 9.6 10.3 10.4
District of Columbia................................................................................... 123 113 96 131 111 117 129 128 123 77 88 88 102 120 98 108 158 129 122 130 113 114 77 17 18.6 16.9 20.9 18.1 19.3 21.3 21.1 20.4 12.8 14.9 15.2 18.0 21.1 18.6 20.3 26.4 21.2 22.2 24.1 21.8 22.3 14.9
Florida................................................................................... 1,088 1,287 1,604 1,692 1,704 1,601 1,611 1,693 1,551 1,342 1,523 1,704 1,590 1,896 2,069 2,097 2,507 2,128 2,321 2,037 2,056 1,923 1,867 16.4 13.5 12.7 16.7 16.6 15.2 14.8 15.1 13.4 11.4 12.4 13.6 12.5 14.4 15.4 15.3 17.8 14.9 16.2 14.2 14.3 13.1 12.4
Georgia................................................................................... 924 884 923 727 881 1,074 1,047 981 1,037 879 883 875 929 1,001 1,077 1,151 919 1,012 878 1,097 1,109 1,034 1,005 20.7 16.6 14.7 13.9 16.3 19.6 18.8 16.9 17.7 14.6 14.6 14.0 15.0 15.8 17.2 17.8 13.5 14.0 12.1 14.8 14.5 13.5 12.9
Hawaii................................................................................... 69 92 88 81 108 132 135 92 109 109 95 117 122 121 90 129 91 97 122 142 164 131 132 9.3 9.9 8.3 8.5 11.3 13.2 13.4 9.3 10.7 10.7 8.8 11.1 11.3 11.0 7.7 11.0 8.0 8.7 10.3 12.1 13.9 10.9 10.9
Idaho................................................................................... 92 117 131 138 171 151 169 171 159 180 150 124 126 157 144 160 150 137 167 140 183 165 175 13.2 12.6 13.3 14.7 17.7 15.6 17.3 17.3 16.0 18.5 15.1 12.5 12.4 14.9 13.9 15.0 13.1 12.0 14.5 11.9 14.7 13.0 13.9
Illinois................................................................................... 1,112 1,231 1,327 1,386 1,371 1,512 1,628 1,753 1,830 1,517 1,655 1,436 1,470 1,606 1,598 1,836 1,600 1,464 1,459 1,429 1,349 1,234 1,206 10.2 11 11.9 12.3 12.1 13.4 14.4 15.0 15.6 13.3 14.4 12.7 12.7 13.7 13.5 15.3 13.6 12.4 12.4 12.1 11.2 10.1 9.9
Indiana................................................................................... 493 516 574 645 685 683 867 697 639 674 597 560 749 714 866 660 704 816 545 428 515 547 395 9.7 9.7 10.7 11.8 12.6 12.6 16.1 12.9 12.0 12.7 11.1 10.1 13.7 13.0 15.7 11.7 12.2 13.7 9.6 7.5 8.8 9.4 6.7
Iowa................................................................................... 319 286 307 311 368 371 471 419 505 376 419 263 291 289 271 327 290 302 352 279 270 257 211 11.6 10.1 11.5 10.8 13.1 13.4 16.7 14.6 17.9 12.9 14.5 9.4 10.3 10.4 9.6 11.3 10.3 10.7 12.2 9.6 9.6 9.1 7.5
Kansas................................................................................... 275 232 275 215 267 247 319 260 331 269 225 195 262 259 317 277 327 375 273 287 250 250 318 12.7 10.1 11.5 9.4 11.7 10.4 13.5 10.7 13.8 11.1 9.2 8.1 10.8 10.3 12.3 11.0 13.1 14.9 10.8 11.2 9.7 9.6 12.2
Kentucky................................................................................... 718 626 682 701 708 587 673 709 708 630 634 634 576 628 683 723 763 710 572 658 623 521 470 22.9 17.6 19 19.3 19.3 16.2 18.0 19.1 19.4 17.7 17.3 17.6 16.1 17.3 18.8 19.7 20.4 18.5 14.7 17.0 15.9 13.5 12.1
Louisiana................................................................................... 933 765 967 868 938 976 942 888 781 953 1,071 968 950 952 795 1,020 1,119 1,117 849 873 691 821 823 26.3 18.6 23.6 20.3 22.0 22.7 21.6 20.6 18.1 22.0 25.1 22.8 23.3 23.6 19.0 24.2 26.4 25.7 19.7 20.5 16.3 19.1 19.2
Maine................................................................................... 131 141 128 158 179 156 143 152 134 115 134 159 128 162 171 170 196 113 138 135 124 131 135 13.6 13 10.8 14.6 16.0 13.7 12.4 13.0 11.9 10.2 11.7 13.2 10.4 13.1 14.1 13.4 15.4 9.4 11.2 11.2 10.1 10.4 10.6
Maryland................................................................................... 387 405 385 389 442 516 354 358 364 414 420 457 411 468 432 568 479 541 520 522 422 359 356 10.1 9.8 8.3 9.5 10.7 12.3 8.6 8.7 8.7 9.2 9.2 9.8 9.0 9.9 9.1 11.6 9.7 10.7 10.1 10.3 8.4 7.2 7.3
Massachusetts................................................................................... 473 532 519 542 518 590 439 519 544 538 477 497 513 626 637 580 641 585 665 622 732 528 722 8.6 9.6 8.9 9.5 8.9 10.3 7.7 8.9 9.2 9.2 8.2 8.5 8.8 10.7 11.0 10.0 10.7 9.7 11.0 10.1 12.2 8.7 11.7
Michigan................................................................................... 819 946 1,191 1,194 1,184 1,481 1,517 1,495 1,308 1,267 1,095 1,112 1,228 1,315 1,308 1,254 1,475 1,347 1,174 1,068 1,006 1,097 977 9.4 10.4 13.1 12.9 13.0 16.2 16.8 16.7 14.5 13.9 12.2 12.1 13.2 14.3 14.1 13.5 15.4 14.1 12.2 11.2 10.3 11.0 9.7
Minnesota................................................................................... 398 375 435 342 438 546 508 381 523 517 484 514 478 524 564 554 506 523 427 458 457 498 346 10.7 9.5 10.2 8.7 10.9 13.3 12.3 9.1 12.6 12.5 11.3 11.6 11.2 12.0 12.9 12.8 11.6 11.7 9.2 9.8 9.6 10.3 7.2
Mississippi................................................................................... 767 587 631 591 618 562 668 628 644 695 637 704 566 684 635 660 639 515 630 575 455 486 444 35.4 23.9 25.2 24.3 25.7 22.9 26.9 25.1 25.1 26.6 25.0 27.2 22.0 25.7 23.7 24.5 24.7 19.9 23.5 20.6 16.7 17.6 16.1
Missouri................................................................................... 672 582 663 625 634 699 808 720 689 722 716 662 654 700 740 797 832 797 484 500 627 531 633 14.7 12.2 13.3 13.0 13.2 14.6 16.7 14.5 13.7 14.4 14.0 12.7 12.6 13.4 14.8 15.6 16.1 15.6 9.4 9.5 11.8 9.8 11.6
Montana................................................................................... 92 94 125 102 107 134 122 115 134 136 144 116 127 134 127 113 127 97 133 155 139 153 140 13.6 12.3 16.1 13.2 13.1 17.0 15.1 13.8 16.0 16.5 18.0 14.6 15.6 16.3 15.4 13.7 14.9 11.5 15.3 17.0 15.6 16.6 15.6
Nebraska................................................................................... 188 163 171 199 221 216 241 213 235 220 191 164 204 167 157 169 169 146 159 169 163 211 180 13.1 10.7 11.1 13.0 14.0 13.6 15.3 13.3 14.8 13.6 11.9 10.3 12.8 10.3 9.5 10.3 10.3 8.8 9.6 10.2 9.8 12.3 10.9
Nevada................................................................................... 43 69 120 70 93 70 86 101 139 82 107 93 121 119 141 188 141 168 173 133 190 195 216 9.1 8.7 10.2 8.3 10.5 7.8 9.8 10.5 14.4 8.1 10.4 8.6 10.8 9.8 11.4 14.4 9.8 11.1 11.1 8.1 11.0 10.6 11.3
New Hampshire................................................................................... 65 75 69 63 70 97 76 68 59 37 51 73 84 68 81 99 112 87 60 73 109 119 96 9.1 8.5 6.4 7.0 7.6 10.3 8.1 7.1 6.0 3.7 4.8 6.7 7.7 6.3 7.3 8.6 9.9 7.7 5.3 6.4 9.1 9.8 7.7
New Jersey................................................................................... 574 689 573 659 736 896 814 758 631 679 626 475 622 711 754 771 866 730 617 726 737 693 631 8.1 9.5 7.6 9.0 10.0 12.2 10.9 10.1 8.3 8.9 8.3 6.2 8.2 9.2 9.7 10.0 10.9 9.2 7.8 9.2 9.3 8.6 7.8
New Mexico................................................................................... 227 226 306 268 243 303 335 280 267 306 280 343 297 319 349 327 282 356 457 472 387 371 371 22.8 17.6 20.6 20.6 18.6 22.4 24.2 19.5 18.5 21.3 19.4 23.0 19.5 20.9 22.4 21.0 17.4 21.1 25.3 25.5 21.2 20.4 20.7
New York................................................................................... 1,986 2,299 2,277 2,391 2,516 2,607 2,780 2,806 2,796 2,322 2,506 2,369 2,254 2,571 2,736 2,699 2,981 3,097 3,020 3,058 2,979 3,068 2,603 11.1 13.4 13 13.8 14.4 14.8 15.8 16.0 15.8 13.2 14.3 13.4 12.6 14.3 15.3 15.3 16.4 17.0 16.5 16.7 16.5 16.7 14.1
North Carolina................................................................................... 996 840 830 877 1,016 1,201 939 860 863 884 853 796 770 829 964 1,047 966 980 877 885 839 1,039 1,017 20.3 14.8 13 15.0 17.5 20.3 15.9 14.6 14.2 14.3 13.8 12.6 12.2 13.0 14.5 15.7 14.4 14.2 12.6 12.2 11.4 14.0 13.5
North Dakota................................................................................... 93 79 88 99 89 85 103 106 108 88 75 76 79 87 92 73 70 65 76 69 87 97 80 15.7 12.6 14.4 15.5 14.2 12.9 15.1 15.4 15.9 13.5 11.4 11.6 12.2 13.7 14.5 11.9 11.2 10.4 12.0 11.0 13.6 15.1 13.0
Ohio................................................................................... 1,041 1,089 1,326 1,046 1,369 1,366 1,447 1,429 1,359 1,372 1,375 1,356 1,143 1,256 1,488 1,381 1,461 1,571 1,285 1,424 1,231 1,253 1,347 10 10.3 12.5 9.8 12.7 12.8 13.6 13.5 12.8 12.8 12.7 12.4 10.6 11.5 13.4 12.4 13.0 14.1 11.5 12.7 11.0 11.2 12.0
Oklahoma................................................................................... 465 394 510 406 413 478 550 426 526 469 547 543 460 481 541 600 662 540 548 556 456 458 414 18.8 13.4 16.7 13.9 13.8 15.4 16.9 13.3 16.0 14.7 17.0 17.3 14.7 15.6 17.0 18.4 19.9 16.7 17.1 16.6 13.7 14.1 12.7
Oregon................................................................................... 235 274 345 309 331 354 427 331 317 332 384 285 327 267 401 340 363 373 360 382 382 503 427 11.5 10.7 12.4 11.5 12.3 13.9 16.4 12.8 11.9 12.3 14.2 10.4 11.2 9.2 13.5 11.3 11.8 11.8 11.2 11.8 11.6 15.0 12.6
Pennsylvania................................................................................... 1,228 1,210 1,284 1,142 1,367 1,572 1,808 1,825 1,217 1,190 1,249 1,246 1,261 1,328 1,340 1,426 1,598 1,496 1,464 1,374 1,337 1,338 1,101 10.6 10.5 11.1 9.8 11.6 13.5 15.5 15.6 10.5 10.1 10.6 10.3 10.4 11.0 11.0 11.7 13.2 12.5 12.2 11.6 11.2 11.3 9.4
Rhode Island................................................................................... 100 94 93 97 109 125 144 121 84 87 79 99 64 71 99 116 108 99 102 104 120 112 97 11 10.3 9.6 10.7 11.7 13.3 14.8 12.8 9.0 9.1 8.1 9.8 6.7 7.5 10.4 12.0 11.2 10.3 10.6 11.0 12.7 11.6 9.9
South Carolina................................................................................... 595 500 518 534 615 701 689 561 489 569 512 528 585 548 582 687 678 501 744 482 500 527 445 23.9 16.6 15.4 16.8 18.4 21.2 20.9 17.2 15.2 17.3 15.6 15.5 17.0 16.2 16.4 18.9 18.7 13.8 19.9 13.0 13.1 13.7 11.7
South Dakota................................................................................... 120 113 106 127 132 114 125 100 119 118 109 101 92 93 96 105 102 107 103 82 117 77 54 18.7 16.9 15.9 18.8 19.5 16.8 18.1 14.5 17.3 17.0 15.2 14.2 13.2 13.3 14.0 14.8 14.2 14.5 14.5 11.8 16.5 10.8 7.7
Tennessee................................................................................... 836 736 745 884 943 1,106 936 800 837 853 792 883 891 833 744 849 998 779 846 878 791 749 659 21.8 16.5 15.7 19.6 20.9 23.6 20.1 17.4 18.1 18.3 16.9 18.0 18.4 16.9 15.5 17.0 19.6 14.6 15.5 15.9 14.3 13.4 11.9
Texas................................................................................... 2,047 2,036 3,001 2,247 2,258 2,450 2,451 2,448 2,582 2,825 2,917 3,006 2,880 2,684 2,965 3,079 3,177 3,603 3,270 3,180 3,297 2,994 3,007 18.8 14.7 18.1 15.7 15.4 16.2 15.7 15.7 15.9 17.3 17.6 18.0 17.1 15.9 17.5 17.8 17.4 19.1 17.4 16.6 16.7 15.1 15.0
Utah................................................................................... 118 148 192 148 185 229 221 183 180 209 173 162 138 143 222 162 203 154 168 153 185 190 122 11.4 10.3 11.4 10.0 12.2 14.5 13.9 11.1 10.9 12.6 10.2 9.8 8.2 8.2 12.9 9.3 10.7 8.0 8.4 7.7 8.9 9.0 5.7
Vermont................................................................................... 52 59 53 62 66 67 83 65 48 58 50 43 44 61 73 63 59 45 61 74 54 58 58 12.1 12.1 9.9 12.0 12.3 12.9 15.6 12.6 9.2 11.0 9.3 8.1 8.0 10.9 12.6 10.4 10.0 7.6 10.3 12.6 9.3 9.9 9.7
Virginia................................................................................... 691 611 612 647 662 668 623 554 558 547 583 647 671 705 608 584 627 710 648 795 858 589 542 15.5 11.8 10.2 12.4 12.6 12.5 11.4 10.0 10.0 9.7 9.9 10.8 10.9 11.1 9.9 9.4 9.7 10.7 10.2 12.3 12.7 8.8 7.9
Washington................................................................................... 336 396 518 538 471 549 460 479 526 563 450 402 455 434 474 555 634 614 677 666 529 512 539 10.2 9.8 10.9 12.7 11.3 12.9 10.8 11.3 12.0 12.9 10.0 8.7 9.6 8.9 9.5 11.0 12.1 11.7 12.5 11.9 9.2 8.9 9.5
West Virginia................................................................................... 380 287 345 297 398 484 424 392 423 432 408 337 283 328 327 396 400 336 300 323 286 312 276 22.2 15 19.7 15.2 19.9 24.8 22.3 20.4 22.3 22.4 21.6 17.9 15.7 18.1 17.9 22.3 22.2 18.6 16.7 18.5 16.4 17.8 15.7
Wisconsin................................................................................... 421 398 509 403 384 452 503 730 544 501 428 364 393 448 492 551 636 453 449 460 422 449 461 9.8 8.7 10.7 8.5 8.1 9.5 10.6 15.5 11.6 10.7 9.0 7.8 8.4 9.3 9.9 10.8 12.6 9.0 8.5 8.8 8.2 8.8 8.6
Wyoming................................................................................... 38 36 52 49 43 58 62 53 61 73 49 43 50 51 47 49 64 45 59 58 66 51 56 11.7 7.9 11.9 10.4 8.9 12.0 12.7 10.9 12.0 14.6 10.8 9.6 10.9 11.0 9.9 10.3 13.3 9.3 12.2 11.9 13.5 10.6 11.6



1 Beginning 1987, data based on revised processing procedures and not directly comparable with prior years.

Source: U.S. Census Bureau, Current Population Reports, P60-185. Current Population Reports, Poverty in the United States, P60-188, P60-189, P60-194, P60-198, P60-201, P60-207, P60-210 and earlier reports; and Internet site (accessed 17 May 2000). 1970 Census of Population, series PC(1)-C1,General Social and Economic Characteristics, table 182. 1980 Census of Population, series PC80-1-C1, General Social and Economic Characteristics", table 245. 1990 Census of Population, series CP-2-1, Social and Economic Characteristics", table 154.

http://www.census.gov/hhes/www/poverty.html

* CURRENT POPULATION SURVEY (MARCH ANNUAL DEMOGRAPHIC SURVEY)

Approximately 62,500 housing units were eligible to receive the 1995 Annual Demographic Survey. The basic monthly CPS sample of 60,000 housing units was supplemented by 2,500 housing units which had at least one Hispanic member the previous November. In addition, members of the Armed Forces, which are excluded from the basic CPS labor force survey, were part of the elibigle population in March. Because of the CPS sample rotation system, approximately one-half of the sample had been interviewed the previous March.

Interviewers used lap-top computers to administer the interview, asking questions as they appear on the screen and directly entering the responses obtained. With the exception of first and the fifth month-in-sample interviews, when an interviewer usually visited the sample unit, over 90 percent of the interviews were conducted by telephone.

Completed interviews were electronically transmitted to a central processor where the responses were edited for consistency, imputations were made for missing data, and various codes were added. Based on the probability of selection, a weight was added to each supplement-responding household and person record so that estimates of the population by state, race, age, sex, and Hispanic origin matched the population projections made by the Bureau of the Census. Since not every person who provided labor force information completed the supplement and the supplement was asked of members of the Armed Forces, the supplement weights vary from those used for labor force estimation.

* DEFINITIONS

Poverty definition

Poverty statistics presented in this report are based on a definition developed by Mollie Orshansky of the Social Security Administration (SSA) in 1964 and revised in 1969 and 1981 by interagency committees. This definition was established as the official definition of poverty for statistical use in all Executive departments by the Bureau of the Budget (BoB) in 1969 (IN CIRCULAR NO. A-46); after BoB became Office of Management and Budget, this was reconfirmed in Statistical Policy Directive No. 14.

The original poverty index provided a range of income cutoffs or thresholds adjusted by such factors as family size, sex of the family head, number of children under 18 years old, and farm- nonfarm residence. At the core of this definition of poverty was the economy food plan, the least costly of four nutritionally adequate food plans designed by the Department of Agriculture. It was determined from the Department of Agriculture's 1955 Household Food Consumption Survey that families of three or more persons spent approximately one-third of their after-tax money income on food; accordingly, poverty thresholds for families of three or more persons were set at three times the cost of the economy food plan. Different procedures were used to calculate poverty thresholds for two-person families and persons living alone in order to compensate for the relatively larger fixed expenses of these smaller units. For two-person families, the cost of the economy food plan was multiplied by a factor of 3.7 (also derived from the 1955 survey). For unrelated individuals (one-person units), no multiplier was used; poverty thresholds were instead calculated as a fixed proportion of the corresponding thresholds for two-person units. Annual updates of these SSA poverty thresholds were based on price changes of the items in the economy food plan.

As a result of deliberations of a Federal interagency committee in 1969, the following two modifications to the original SSA definition of poverty were adopted: (1) the SSA thresholds for nonfarm families were retained for the base year 1963, but annual adjustments in the levels were based on changes in the Consumer Price Index (CPI) rather than on changes in the cost of foods in the economy food plan; and (2) the farm thresholds were raised from 70 to 85 percent of the corresponding nonfarm levels. The combined impact of these two modifications resulted in an increase in the tabulated totals for 1967 of 360,000 poor families and 1.6 million poor persons.

In 1981 three additional modifications in the poverty definition recommended by another interagency committee were adopted for implementation in the March 1982 CPS as well as the 1980 census: (1) elimination of separate thresholds for farm families, (2) elimination (by averaging) of separate thresholds for female- householder families and "all other" families (earlier termed "male-headed" families) and (3) extension of the detailed poverty threshold matrix to make the largest family size category "nine persons or more." For further details, see the section, "Changes in the Definition of Poverty," in Current Population Reports, Series P-60, No. 133.

The poverty thresholds are increased each year by the same percentage as the annual average Consumer Price Index.

For further information on how the poverty thresholds were developed and subsequent changes in them, see Gordon M. Fisher, "The Development and History of the Poverty Thresholds," Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 55 No. 4, Winter 1992, pp. 3-14.

*



https://allcountries.org/uscensus/759_persons_below_poverty_level_by_state.html

These tables are based on figures supplied by the United States Census Bureau, U.S. Department of Commerce and are subject to revision by the Census Bureau.

Copyright © 2006 Photius Coutsoukis and Information Technology Associates, all rights reserved.