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32. 1997 Economic Census





682. Nonfarm Establishments--Employees, Hours, and Earnings, by Industry

[Based on data from establishment reports. Includes all full- and part-time employees who worked during, or received pay for, any part of the pay period reported. Excludes proprietors, the self-employed, farm workers, unpaid family workers, private household workers, and Armed Forces. Establishment data shown here conform to industry definitions in the 1987 Standard Industrial Classification and are adjusted to March 1998 employment benchmarks, and reflect historical corrections to previously published data. Based on the Current Employment Statistics Program; see Appendix III]

 
GOODS- PRODUCING GOODS- PRODUCING SERVICE-PRODUCING SERVICE-PRODUCING
ITEM AND YEAR Con- Manu- Transportation Finance,
Total Total Mining struction facturing Total and Wholesale Retail insurance Services Government
public trade trade and real
utilities estate
 
EMPLOYEES
(1,000)
1960 54,189 20,434 712 2,926 16,796 33,755 4,004 3,153 8,238 2,628 7,378 8,353
1965 60,763 21,926 632 3,232 18,062 38,839 4,036 3,477 9,239 2,977 9,036 10,074
1970 70,880 23,578 623 3,588 19,367 47,302 4,515 4,006 11,034 3,645 11,548 12,554
1975 76,945 22,600 752 3,525 18,323 54,345 4,542 4,430 12,630 4,165 13,892 14,686
1980 90,406 25,658 1,027 4,346 20,285 64,748 5,146 5,292 15,018 5,160 17,890 16,241
1982 89,544 23,812 1,128 3,904 18,780 65,732 5,081 5,295 15,158 5,340 19,021 15,837
1983 90,152 23,330 952 3,946 18,432 66,821 4,952 5,283 15,587 5,466 19,664 15,869
1984 94,408 24,718 966 4,380 19,372 69,690 5,156 5,568 16,512 5,684 20,746 16,024
1985 97,387 24,842 927 4,668 19,248 72,544 5,233 5,727 17,315 5,948 21,927 16,394
1986 99,344 24,533 777 4,810 18,947 74,811 5,247 5,761 17,880 6,273 22,957 16,693
1987 101,958 24,674 717 4,958 18,999 77,284 5,362 5,848 18,422 6,533 24,110 17,010
1988 105,209 25,125 713 5,098 19,314 80,084 5,512 6,030 19,023 6,630 25,504 17,386
1989 107,884 25,254 692 5,171 19,391 82,630 5,614 6,187 19,475 6,668 26,907 17,779
1990 109,403 24,905 709 5,120 19,076 84,497 5,777 6,173 19,601 6,709 27,934 18,304
1991 108,249 23,745 689 4,650 18,406 84,504 5,755 6,081 19,284 6,646 28,336 18,402
1992 108,601 23,231 635 4,492 18,104 85,370 5,718 5,997 19,356 6,602 29,052 18,645
1993 110,713 23,352 610 4,668 18,075 87,361 5,811 5,981 19,773 6,757 30,197 18,841
1994 114,163 23,908 601 4,986 18,321 90,256 5,984 6,162 20,507 6,896 31,579 19,128
1995 117,191 24,265 581 5,160 18,524 92,925 6,132 6,378 21,187 6,806 33,117 19,305
1996 119,608 24,493 580 5,418 18,495 95,115 6,253 6,482 21,597 6,911 34,454 19,419
1997 122,690 24,962 596 5,691 18,675 97,727 6,408 6,648 21,966 7,109 36,040 19,557
1998 125,826 25,347 590 5,985 18,772 100,480 6,600 6,831 22,296 7,407 37,526 19,819
1999 128,615 25,240 535 6,273 18,432 103,375 6,792 7,004 22,787 7,632 39,000 20,160
PERCENT
DISTRIBUTION
1960 100.0 37.7 1.3 5.4 31.0 62.3 7.4 5.8 15.2 4.8 13.6 15.4
1965 100.0 36.1 1.0 5.3 29.7 63.9 6.6 5.7 15.2 4.9 14.9 16.6
1970 100.0 33.3 0.9 5.1 27.3 66.7 6.4 5.7 15.6 5.1 16.3 17.7
1975 100.0 29.4 1.0 4.6 23.8 70.6 5.9 5.8 16.4 5.4 18.1 19.1
1980 100.0 28.4 1.1 4.8 22.4 71.6 5.7 5.9 16.6 5.7 19.8 18.0
1982 100.0 26.6 1.3 4.4 21.0 73.4 5.7 5.9 16.9 6.0 21.2 17.7
1983 100.0 25.9 1.1 4.4 20.4 74.1 5.5 5.9 17.3 6.1 21.8 17.6
1984 100.0 26.2 1.0 4.6 20.5 73.8 5.5 5.9 17.5 6.0 22.0 17.0
1985 100.0 25.5 1.0 4.8 19.8 74.5 5.4 5.9 17.8 6.1 22.5 16.8
1986 100.0 24.7 0.8 4.8 19.1 75.3 5.3 5.8 18.0 6.3 23.1 16.8
1987 100.0 24.2 0.7 4.9 18.6 75.8 5.3 5.7 18.1 6.4 23.6 16.7
1988 100.0 23.9 0.7 4.8 18.4 76.1 5.2 5.7 18.1 6.3 24.2 16.5
1989 100.0 23.4 0.6 4.8 18.0 76.6 5.2 5.7 18.1 6.2 24.9 16.5
1990 100.0 22.8 0.6 4.7 17.4 77.2 5.3 5.6 17.9 6.1 25.5 16.7
1991 100.0 21.9 0.6 4.3 17.0 78.1 5.3 5.6 17.8 6.1 26.2 17.0
1992 100.0 21.4 0.6 4.1 16.7 78.6 5.3 5.5 17.8 6.1 26.8 17.2
1993 100.0 21.1 0.6 4.2 16.3 78.9 5.2 5.4 17.9 6.1 27.3 17.0
1994 100.0 20.9 0.5 4.4 16.0 79.1 5.2 5.4 18.0 6.0 27.7 16.8
1995 100.0 20.7 0.5 4.4 15.8 79.3 5.2 5.4 18.1 5.8 28.3 16.5
1996 100.0 20.5 0.5 4.5 15.5 79.5 5.2 5.4 18.1 5.8 28.8 16.2
1997 100.0 20.3 0.5 4.6 15.2 79.7 5.2 5.4 17.9 5.8 29.4 15.9
1998 100.0 20.1 0.5 4.8 14.9 79.9 5.2 5.4 17.7 5.9 29.8 15.8
1999 100.0 19.6 0.4 4.9 14.3 80.4 5.3 5.4 17.7 5.9 30.3 15.7
WEEKLY
HOURS 1
1960 38.6 (NA) 40.4 36.7 39.7 (NA) (NA) 40.5 38.0 37.2 (NA) (NA)
1965 38.8 (NA) 42.3 37.4 41.2 (NA) 41.3 40.8 36.6 37.2 35.9 (NA)
1970 37.1 (NA) 42.7 37.3 39.8 (NA) 40.5 39.9 33.8 36.7 34.4 (NA)
1975 36.1 (NA) 41.9 36.4 39.5 (NA) 39.7 38.6 32.4 36.5 33.5 (NA)
1980 35.3 (NA) 43.3 37.0 39.7 (NA) 39.6 38.4 30.2 36.2 32.6 (NA)
1982 34.8 (NA) 42.7 36.7 38.9 (NA) 39.0 38.3 29.9 36.2 32.6 (NA)
1983 35.0 (NA) 42.5 37.1 40.1 (NA) 39.0 38.5 29.8 36.2 32.7 (NA)
1984 35.2 (NA) 43.3 37.8 40.7 (NA) 39.4 38.5 29.8 36.5 32.6 (NA)
1985 34.9 (NA) 43.4 37.7 40.5 (NA) 39.5 38.4 29.4 36.4 32.5 (NA)
1986 34.8 (NA) 42.2 37.4 40.7 (NA) 39.2 38.3 29.2 36.4 32.5 (NA)
1987 34.8 (NA) 42.4 37.8 41.0 (NA) 39.2 38.1 29.2 36.3 32.5 (NA)
1988 34.7 (NA) 42.3 37.9 41.1 (NA) 38.2 38.1 29.1 35.9 32.6 (NA)
1989 34.6 (NA) 43.0 37.9 41.0 (NA) 38.3 38.0 28.9 35.8 32.6 (NA)
1990 34.5 (NA) 44.1 38.2 40.8 (NA) 38.4 38.1 28.8 35.8 32.5 (NA)
1991 34.3 (NA) 44.4 38.1 40.7 (NA) 38.1 38.1 28.6 35.7 32.4 (NA)
1992 34.4 (NA) 43.9 38.0 41.0 (NA) 38.3 38.2 28.8 35.8 32.5 (NA)
1993 34.5 (NA) 44.3 38.5 41.4 (NA) 39.3 38.2 28.8 35.8 32.5 (NA)
1994 34.7 (NA) 44.8 38.9 42.0 (NA) 39.7 38.4 28.9 35.8 32.5 (NA)
1995 34.5 (NA) 44.7 38.9 41.6 (NA) 39.4 38.3 28.8 35.9 32.4 (NA)
1996 34.4 (NA) 45.3 39.0 41.6 (NA) 39.6 38.3 28.8 35.9 32.4 (NA)
1997 34.6 (NA) 45.4 39.0 42.0 (NA) 39.7 38.4 28.9 36.1 32.6 (NA)
1998 34.6 (NA) 43.9 38.8 41.7 (NA) 39.5 38.4 29.0 36.4 32.6 (NA)
1999 34.5 (NA) 43.8 39.0 41.7 (NA) 38.7 38.4 29.0 36.2 32.6 (NA)
HOURLY
EARNINGS 1
1960 2.09 (NA) 2.60 3.07 2.26 (NA) (NA) 2.24 1.52 2.02 (NA) (NA)
1965 2.46 (NA) 2.92 3.70 2.61 (NA) 3.03 2.60 1.82 2.39 2.05 (NA)
1970 3.23 (NA) 3.85 5.24 3.35 (NA) 3.85 3.43 2.44 3.07 2.81 (NA)
1975 4.53 (NA) 5.95 7.31 4.83 (NA) 5.88 4.72 3.36 4.06 4.02 (NA)
1980 6.66 (NA) 9.17 9.94 7.27 (NA) 8.87 6.95 4.88 5.79 5.85 (NA)
1982 7.68 (NA) 10.77 11.63 8.49 (NA) 10.32 8.08 5.48 6.78 6.92 (NA)
1983 8.02 (NA) 11.28 11.94 8.83 (NA) 10.79 8.54 5.74 7.29 7.31 (NA)
1984 8.32 (NA) 11.63 12.13 9.19 (NA) 11.12 8.88 5.85 7.63 7.59 (NA)
1985 8.57 (NA) 11.98 12.32 9.54 (NA) 11.40 9.15 5.94 7.94 7.90 (NA)
1986 8.76 (NA) 12.46 12.48 9.73 (NA) 11.70 9.34 6.03 8.36 8.18 (NA)
1987 8.98 (NA) 12.54 12.71 9.91 (NA) 12.03 9.59 6.12 8.73 8.49 (NA)
1988 9.28 (NA) 12.80 13.08 10.19 (NA) 12.24 9.98 6.31 9.06 8.88 (NA)
1989 9.66 (NA) 13.26 13.54 10.48 (NA) 12.57 10.39 6.53 9.53 9.38 (NA)
1990 10.01 (NA) 13.68 13.77 10.83 (NA) 12.92 10.79 6.75 9.97 9.83 (NA)
1991 10.32 (NA) 14.19 14.00 11.18 (NA) 13.20 11.15 6.94 10.39 10.23 (NA)
1992 10.57 (NA) 14.54 14.15 11.46 (NA) 13.43 11.39 7.12 10.82 10.54 (NA)
1993 10.83 (NA) 14.60 14.38 11.74 (NA) 13.55 11.74 7.29 11.35 10.78 (NA)
1994 11.12 (NA) 14.88 14.73 12.07 (NA) 13.78 12.06 7.49 11.83 11.04 (NA)
1995 11.43 (NA) 15.30 15.09 12.37 (NA) 14.13 12.43 7.69 12.32 11.39 (NA)
1996 11.82 (NA) 15.62 15.47 12.77 (NA) 14.45 12.87 7.99 12.80 11.79 (NA)
1997 12.28 (NA) 16.15 16.04 13.17 (NA) 14.92 13.45 8.33 13.34 12.28 (NA)
1998 12.78 (NA) 16.90 16.59 13.49 (NA) 15.31 14.06 8.73 14.06 12.85 (NA)
1999 13.24 (NA) 17.04 17.13 13.91 (NA) 15.67 14.59 9.08 14.61 13.38 (NA)
WEEKLY
EARNINGS 1
1960 81 (NA) 105 113 90 (NA) (NA) 91 58 75 (NA) (NA)
1965 95 (NA) 124 138 108 (NA) 125 106 67 89 74 (NA)
1970 120 (NA) 164 195 133 (NA) 156 137 82 113 97 (NA)
1975 164 (NA) 249 266 191 (NA) 233 182 109 148 135 (NA)
1980 235 (NA) 397 368 289 (NA) 351 267 147 210 191 (NA)
1982 267 (NA) 460 427 330 (NA) 402 309 164 245 226 (NA)
1983 281 (NA) 479 443 354 (NA) 421 329 171 264 239 (NA)
1984 293 (NA) 504 459 374 (NA) 438 342 174 279 247 (NA)
1985 299 (NA) 520 464 386 (NA) 450 351 175 289 257 (NA)
1986 305 (NA) 526 467 396 (NA) 459 358 176 304 266 (NA)
1987 313 (NA) 532 480 406 (NA) 472 365 179 317 276 (NA)
1988 322 (NA) 541 496 419 (NA) 468 380 184 325 289 (NA)
1989 334 (NA) 570 513 430 (NA) 481 395 189 341 306 (NA)
1990 345 (NA) 603 526 442 (NA) 496 411 194 357 319 (NA)
1991 354 (NA) 630 533 455 (NA) 503 425 198 371 331 (NA)
1992 364 (NA) 638 538 470 (NA) 514 435 205 387 343 (NA)
1993 374 (NA) 647 554 486 (NA) 533 448 210 406 350 (NA)
1994 386 (NA) 667 573 507 (NA) 547 463 216 424 359 (NA)
1995 394 (NA) 684 587 515 (NA) 557 476 221 442 369 (NA)
1996 407 (NA) 708 603 531 (NA) 572 493 230 460 382 (NA)
1997 425 (NA) 733 626 553 (NA) 592 516 241 482 400 (NA)
1998 442 (NA) 742 644 563 (NA) 605 540 253 512 419 (NA)
1999 457 (NA) 746 668 580 (NA) 606 560 263 529 436 (NA)


NA Not available.
1 Average hours and earnings. Private production and related workers in mining, manufacturing, and construction; nonsupervisory employees in other industries.

Source: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, Employment and Earnings, monthly, June issues and Internet site

http://stats.bls.gov/newsrels.htm *

Employment, Hours, and Earnings from the Establishment Survey

Concepts

Establishment

An establishment is an economic unit, such as a factory, mine, or store, which produces goods or services. It is generally at a single location and engaged predominantly in one type of economic activity. Where a single location encompasses two or more distinct activities, these are treated as separate establishments, provided that separate payroll records are available and certain other criteria are met.

Employment

Employment is the total number of persons employed full or part time in nonfarm establishments during a specified payroll period. Temporary employees are included. In general, data refer to persons who worked during, or received pay for, any part of the pay period that includes the 12th of the month, which is standard for all Federal agencies collecting employment data from business establishments. National employment figures for Federal Government establishments, however, represent the number of persons who were paid for the last full pay period of the calendar month except for the Department of Defense, which reports the number of civilian employees on the payroll the last day of the month; intermittent Federal Government workers are counted if they performed any service during the month.

Workers on an establishment payroll who are on paid sick leave (when pay is received directly from the employer); on paid holiday or vacation; or who work during only a part of the specified pay period, even though they are unemployed or on strike during the rest of the pay period, are all counted as employed. Persons on the payroll of more than one establishment during the pay period are counted in each establishment which reports them, whether the duplication is due to turnover or dual jobholding. Persons are considered employed if they receive pay for any part of the specified pay period, but they are not considered employed if they receive no pay at all for the pay period. Since proprietors, the self-employed, and unpaid family workers do not have the status of paid employees, they are not included. Also excluded from the employed are domestic workers in households; persons who are on layoff, on leave without pay, or on strike for the entire pay period; and persons who were hired but have not yet started work during the pay period. The employment statistics for government refer to civilian employees only. All persons who meet these specifications are included in the designation "all employees," regardless of industry.

In addition to employment data for all employees, the survey also collects data on a major category of workers in each industry, differentiated primarily to ensure the expeditious collection of current statistics on hours and earnings. These groups of employees are designated production workers, construction workers, or nonsupervisory workers, depending upon the industry.

Data are collected for production workers in manufacturing and mining industries. In manufacturing, this group covers employees, up through the level of working supervisors, who engage directly in the manufacture of the establishment's product. Among those excluded from this category are persons in executive and managerial positions and persons engaged in activities such as accounting, sales, advertising, routine office work, professional and technical functions, and force-account construction. (Force-account construction is construction work performed by an establishment, primarily engaged in some business other than construction, for its own account and for use by its own employees.) Production workers in mining are defined in a similar manner.

In construction, the term "construction workers" covers workers, up through the level of working supervisors, who are engaged directly on the construction project either at the site or in shops or yards at jobs ordinarily performed by members of construction trades. Excluded from this category are executive and managerial personnel, professional and technical employees, and workers in routine office jobs.

In the remaining private sector industries (transportation, communications, and public utilities; wholesale and retail trade; finance, insurance, and real estate; and services) data are collected for nonsupervisory workers. Nonsupervisory workers include most employees except those in top executive and managerial positions.

An employment benchmark is a reasonably complete count of employment used to adjust estimates derived from a sample. Adjustment is usually done annually. The basic source of benchmark data for the CES survey is data on "all employees" collected from employers by State employment security agencies as a byproduct of the unemployment insurance (UI) system. About 98 percent of all employees on nonfarm payrolls are covered by the UI system.

Hours and earnings

The hours and earnings series are based on reports of gross payrolls and the corresponding paid hours for production workers, construction workers, or nonsupervisory workers.

Aggregate payrolls include pay before deductions for Social Security, unemployment insurance, group insurance, withholding tax, salary reduction plans, bonds, and union dues. The payroll figures also include pay for overtime, shift premiums, holidays, vacations, and sick leave paid directly by the employer to employees for the pay period reported. They exclude bonuses, commissions, and other lump-sum payments (unless earned and paid regularly each pay period or month), or other pay not earned in the pay period concerned (e.g., retroactive pay). Tips and the value of free rent, fuel, meals, or other payments in kind are not included.

Total hours during the pay period include all hours worked (including overtime hours), hours paid for standby or reporting time, and equivalent hours for which employees received pay directly from the employer for sick leave, holidays, vacations, and other leave. Overtime or other premium pay hours are not converted to straight-time equivalent hours. The concept of total hours differs from scheduled hours or hours worked. The average weekly hours derived from the total hours reflect the effects of such factors as unpaid absenteeism, labor turnover, part-time work, and strikes, as well as fluctuations in work schedules.

Overtime hours are hours worked for which premiums were paid because they were in excess of the number of hours of either the straight-time workday or workweek. Saturday and Sunday hours (or 6- and 7th-day hours) are included as overtime only if overtime premiums were paid. Holiday hours worked as overtime are not included unless they are paid for at more than the straight-time rate. Hours for which only shift differential, hazard, incentive, or similar types of premiums were paid are excluded from overtime hours. Overtime hours data are collected only from establishments in manufacturing industries.

Average hourly earnings series, derived by dividing gross payrolls by total hours, reflect the actual earnings of workers, including premium pay. They differ from wage rates, which are the amounts stipulated for a given unit of work or time. Average hourly earnings do not represent total labor costs per hour for the employer, because they exclude retroactive payments and irregular bonuses, employee benefits, and the employer's share of payroll taxes. Earnings for those employees not covered under the production worker and nonsupervisory categories are not reflected in the estimates.

Real earnings data (those expressed in 1982 dollars) result from the adjustment of average hourly and weekly earnings by means of the Bureau's Consumer Price Index for Urban Wage Earners and Clerical Workers (CPI-W); they indicate the changes in the purchasing power of money earnings as a result of price changes for consumer goods and services. These data cannot be used to measure changes in living standards as a whole, which are affected by other factors such as total family income, the extension and incidence of various social services and benefits, and the duration and extent of employment and unemployment. The long-term trends of these earnings data are also affected by changing mixes of full-time/part-time workers, high-paid/low-paid workers, etc.

Straight-time average hourly earnings are approximated by adjusting average hourly earnings by eliminating only premium pay for overtime at a rate of time and one-half. Thus, no adjustment is made for other premium payment provisions such as holiday work, late shift work, and premium overtime rates other than those at time and one-half. Straight-time average hourly earnings are calculated only for manufacturing industries because data on overtime hours are not collected in other industries.

Industrial classification

Industrial classification refers to the grouping of reporting establishments into industries on the basis of their major product or activity as determined by the establishments' percentages of total sales or receipts for the previous calendar year. This information is collected as an administrative byproduct of the UI reporting system. All data for an establishment making more than one product or engaging in more than one activity are classified under the industry of the most important product or activity, based on the percentages reported.

Industries are classified in accordance with the 1987 Standard Industrial Classification Manual, Office of Management and Budget.



https://allcountries.org/uscensus/682_nonfarm_establishments_employees_hours_and_earnings.html

These tables are based on figures supplied by the United States Census Bureau, U.S. Department of Commerce and are subject to revision by the Census Bureau.

Copyright © 2006 Photius Coutsoukis and Information Technology Associates, all rights reserved.