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605. Cash and Noncash Benefits for Persons With Limited Income

[For years ending September 30, except as noted (143,294 represents $143,294,000,000). Programs covered provide cash, goods, or services to persons who make no payment and render no service in return. In case of many programs, including family cash welfare, food and housing programs, job and training programs and some educational programs, some recipients must work or study. Most of the programs base eligibility on individual, household, or family income, but some use group or area income tests; and a few offer help on the basis of presumed need]

 
Average monthly Average monthly Expenditures (mil. dol.) Expenditures (mil. dol.) Expenditures (mil. dol.) Expenditures (mil. dol.) Expenditures (mil. dol.) Expenditures (mil. dol.)
Recipients (1,000) Recipients (1,000)  
Total Total Federal Federal State and local State and local
Program  
1985 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1985 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1985 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1985 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998
 
       Total (X) (X) (X) (X) (X) (X) (X) (X) (X) (X) 143,294 212,542 249,461 295,305 311,228 348,698 366,594 370,769 379,971 391,733 105,064 151,478 177,899 208,211 223,528 246,302 258,382 263,550 269,754 277,332 38,230 61,064 71,562 87,094 87,700 102,396 108,212 107,219 110,216 114,401
 
Medical care 1 (X) (X) (X) (X) (X) (X) (X) (X) (X) (X) 49,440 86,785 109,224 135,776 142,990 161,345 174,556 177,940 186,100 196,391 27,880 50,190 62,397 78,618 84,985 93,616 101,338 103,925 107,787 113,779 21,560 36,595 46,827 57,158 58,005 67,729 73,218 74,015 78,313 82,612
  Medicaid 2 3 21,814 25,253 27,967 30,776 32,634 40,348 41,388 41,284 40,160 41,360 41,258 72,492 94,448 119,067 125,770 143,807 156,395 159,357 167,359 177,364 22,844 41,103 52,533 67,827 73,372 81,837 89,070 91,205 94,738 100,177 18,414 31,389 41,915 51,240 52,398 61,970 67,325 68,152 72,621 77,187
  Veterans 4 5 \a 504 585 541 1,644 1,610 1,518 1,561 158 (NA) 153 3,053 6,624 7,140 7,598 8,183 8,203 8,642 8,967 9,220 9,603 3,053 6,624 7,140 7,598 8,183 8,203 8,642 8,967 9,220 9,603 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
  General assistance 5 (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) 3,114 4,854 4,538 5,508 5,189 5,328 5,464 5,437 5,268 4,956 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 3,114 4,853 4,538 5,508 5,189 5,328 5,464 5,437 5,268 4,956
  Indian health services 2 3 931 1,100 1,100 1,273 1,303 1,224 1,257 1,402 1,430 1,458 862 1,176 1,411 1,706 1,858 1,943 1,960 1,984 2,057 2,099 862 1,176 1,411 1,706 1,858 1,943 1,960 1,984 2,057 2,099 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
  Maternal and child health services (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) 11,600 11,600 12,200 18,700 23,900 (NA) 783 907 961 1,056 1,083 1,118 1,113 1,105 1,105 1,102 478 554 587 646 665 687 684 679 681 678 305 353 374 410 418 431 429 426 424 424
  Consolidated health centers 2 5,200 5,350 5,400 5,871 6,250 6,600 7,000 8,100 8,300 8,450 383 457 478 533 559 604 617 615 802 825 383 457 478 533 559 604 617 615 802 825 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
 
Cash aid 1 (X) (X) (X) (X) (X) (X) (X) (X) (X) (X) 37,636 54,255 61,623 69,823 74,801 86,319 91,598 92,455 93,082 94,562 24,486 36,445 42,272 48,716 53,350 63,397 67,923 70,011 71,848 73,872 13,150 17,810 19,351 21,107 21,451 22,922 23,675 22,444 21,234 20,690
  Supplemental security income 3 6 4,305 4,938 5,175 5,559 6,021 6,429 6,715 6,894 6,984 7,199 11,857 17,233 19,259 22,774 25,708 30,128 30,567 32,065 32,395 33,601 9,603 13,607 15,468 18,744 21,801 26,254 26,839 28,355 28,667 29,656 2,254 3,626 3,791 4,030 3,907 3,874 3,728 3,710 3,728 3,945
  TANF/AFDC 3 7 10,813 11,465 12,596 13,625 14,144 14,226 13,619 12,649 10,936 8,770 16,736 21,200 22,966 24,986 25,059 26,098 25,553 23,677 23,179 21,513 8,909 11,507 12,482 13,688 13,757 14,192 13,788 12,698 12,494 11,286 7,827 9,693 10,484 11,298 11,302 11,906 11,765 10,979 10,685 10,227
  Earned income tax credit (refunded portion) 8 17,313 37,836 38,859 40,299 42,012 51,468 52,128 53,706 58,143 58,197 1,162 5,303 7,938 9,625 10,883 15,722 19,040 20,600 23,200 25,300 1,162 5,303 7,938 9,625 10,883 15,722 19,040 20,600 23,200 25,300 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
  Foster care 108 168 203 222 233 244 261 274 289 306 949 2,741 3,385 4,170 4,759 5,215 5,747 5,706 6,794 7,033 490 1,473 1,819 2,233 2,547 2,746 3,066 3,097 3,692 3,730 459 1,268 1,566 1,937 2,212 2,469 2,681 2,609 3,102 3,303
  General assistance 8 1,323 1,205 1,324 1,212 1,168 1,113 989 767 700 (NA) 2,499 2,924 3,214 3,354 3,411 3,596 3,559 3,147 3,200 2,625 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2,499 2,924 3,214 3,354 3,411 3,596 3,559 3,147 3,200 2,625
  Pensions for needy veterans 9 10 1,489 1,106 1,045 969 864 838 798 782 747 712 3,842 3,954 3,930 3,667 3,477 3,159 3,018 3,042 3,066 3,071 3,842 3,954 3,930 3,667 3,477 3,159 3,018 3,042 3,066 3,071 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
 
Food benefits 1 (X) (X) (X) (X) (X) (X) (X) (X) (X) (X) 20,391 25,106 29,317 34,252 36,338 37,877 38,627 39,084 37,348 35,511 19,362 23,871 28,005 32,809 34,772 36,107 36,797 37,164 35,374 33,451 1,029 1,235 1,312 1,443 1,566 1,770 1,830 1,920 1,974 2,060
  Food stamps 3 11 21,400 21,500 24,100 26,900 28,400 28,900 28,000 26,800 24,200 21,000 13,470 17,686 21,012 24,914 26,304 27,225 27,438 27,344 24,772 22,384 12,599 16,512 19,765 23,539 24,806 25,525 25,678 25,494 22,868 20,397 871 1,174 1,247 1,375 1,498 1,700 1,760 1,850 1,904 1,987
  School lunch program 12 13 11,500 11,600 12,100 13,000 13,600 14,000 14,400 14,600 15,100 15,300 2,665 3,154 3,502 3,954 4,207 4,438 4,581 4,784 5,044 5,196 2,665 3,154 3,502 3,954 4,207 4,438 4,581 4,784 5,044 5,196 (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA)
  Women, infants and children 3 14 3,138 4,500 4,900 5,400 5,900 6,500 6,900 7,200 7,400 7,400 1,500 2,126 2,350 2,672 2,928 3,160 3,451 3,688 3,846 3,896 1,500 2,126 2,350 2,672 2,928 3,160 3,451 3,688 3,846 3,896 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
  School breakfast 12 3,040 3,600 4,000 4,500 4,800 5,200 5,500 5,700 6,000 6,100 400 548 674 782 878 936 1,021 1,088 1,180 1,266 400 548 674 782 878 936 1,021 1,088 1,180 1,266 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
  Child and adult care food program 15 704 842 904 1,008 1,060 1,200 1,300 1,300 (NA) 1,800 199 447 538 624 697 832 905 982 1,199 1,404 199 447 538 624 697 832 905 982 1,199 1,404 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
  Nutrition program for elderly 16 3,630 3,540 3,457 3,349 3,200 3,270 3,401 3,023 (NA) (NA) 614 575 640 674 673 689 690 688 685 700 456 514 575 606 605 619 620 618 615 627 158 61 65 68 68 70 70 70 70 73
 
Housing benefits 1 (X) (X) (X) (X) (X) (X) (X) (X) (X) (X) 14,113 17,548 18,961 24,222 25,285 25,761 27,272 27,955 28,896 29,511 14,113 17,548 18,961 21,922 23,955 24,145 24,948 25,496 26,440 26,897 0 0 0 2,300 1,330 1,615 2,325 2,459 2,456 2,614
  Low-income housing asst. (Sec. 8) 17 2,010 2,500 2,548 2,797 2,812 2,926 3,012 2,953 2,943 3,001 6,818 10,577 11,400 12,306 13,288 14,576 15,824 15,536 16,393 16,114 6,818 10,577 11,400 12,306 13,288 14,576 15,824 15,536 16,393 16,114 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
  Low-rent public housing 17 18 1,355 1,405 1,405 1,409 1,408 1,409 1,411 1,395 1,372 1,295 3,408 3,918 4,544 5,008 6,180 4,026 4,449 4,241 4,384 3,899 3,408 3,918 4,544 5,008 6,180 4,026 4,449 4,241 4,384 3,899 (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA)
  Rural housing loans 19 20 41 26 24 26 31 39 32 41 41 55 1,790 1,311 1,315 1,468 1,831 2,384 1,983 2,716 2,706 3,830 1,790 1,311 1,315 1,468 1,831 2,384 1,983 2,716 2,706 3,830 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
  Interest reduction payments 17 528 531 528 510 510 505 501 507 494 477 619 630 553 652 635 659 661 659 604 618 619 630 553 652 635 659 661 659 604 618 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
  Home investment partnerships 3 20 \21 (NA) 0 26 76 67 71 73 75 3 3,689 2,092 2,809 3,269 3,810 3,817 4,062 3 1,389 771 1,210 963 1,367 1,373 1,461 0 2,300 1,321 1,599 2,306 2,443 2,444 2,601
  Rural rental assistance 19 20 26 16 15 15 15 36 42 40 40 39 903 572 576 574 574 445 523 541 520 541 903 572 576 574 574 445 523 541 520 541 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
 
Education aid 1 (X) (X) (X) (X) (X) (X) (X) (X) (X) (X) 9,970 14,390 15,410 14,216 15,079 15,541 16,092 16,378 17,535 18,128 9,516 13,761 14,863 13,602 14,313 14,637 15,137 15,423 16,509 16,991 454 629 547 614 766 903 955 955 1,026 1,137
  Pell grants 22 23 2,797 3,214 3,669 4,401 4,743 3,808 3,952 3,611 3,665 3,732 2,800 4,484 4,804 5,374 5,500 6,459 6,634 6,144 5,660 6,274 2,800 4,484 4,804 5,374 5,500 6,459 6,634 6,144 5,660 6,274 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
  Head Start 448 541 584 621 714 740 751 752 794 822 1,309 1,940 2,440 2,752 3,470 4,157 4,417 4,461 4,976 5,434 1,047 1,552 1,952 2,202 2,776 3,326 3,534 3,569 3,981 4,347 262 388 488 550 694 831 883 892 995 1,087
  Stafford loans 22 3,477 4,496 4,815 3,686 3,855 4,391 3,516 4,422 4,882 4,956 3,888 5,648 6,114 3,929 3,791 2,592 2,702 3,357 4,610 3,770 3,888 5,648 6,114 3,929 3,791 2,592 2,702 3,357 4,610 3,770 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
  Federal Work-Study Program 22 23 737 867 841 789 713 713 713 702 691 945 555 610 602 595 615 617 617 617 617 830 555 610 602 595 615 617 617 617 617 830 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
  Supplemental Educational Opportunity Grants 22 23 720 633 728 907 994 991 991 1,082 1,191 991 375 438 459 520 577 583 583 583 583 583 375 438 459 520 577 583 583 583 583 583 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
 
Services 1 (X) (X) (X) (X) (X) (X) (NA) (X) (X) (X) 5,476 8,185 7,906 9,248 9,479 13,536 11,329 11,021 11,631 12,453 3,551 3,781 4,933 5,340 5,530 6,810 6,012 6,312 6,660 7,300 1,925 4,404 2,973 3,908 3,949 6,726 5,317 4,709 4,971 5,153
  Social services (Title 20) 24 (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) 4,650 7,071 5,419 6,132 6,132 9,728 7,168 6,095 6,400 5,885 2,725 2,762 2,800 2,800 2,800 25 3,800 2,800 2,381 2,500 2,299 1,925 4,309 2,619 3,332 3,332 5,928 4,368 3,714 3,900 3,586
  Child care for AFDC recipients and ex-recipients 26 (NA) (NA) 231 326 424 500 583 (NA) (X) (X) (X) 211 546 755 1,003 1,305 1,675 1,739 (X) (X) (X) 116 311 438 583 752 950 981 (X) (X) (X) 95 235 317 420 553 725 758 (X) (X)
  Child care and development block grant 26 (NA) (X) (NA) 571 750 605 663 (NA) (NA) (NA) (X) (X) 732 825 893 893 935 933 3,378 4,690 (X) (X) 732 825 893 893 935 933 2,307 3,123 (X) (X) 0 0 0 0 0 0 1,071 1,567
  "At risk" child care (to avert AFDC eligibility) (NA) (X) (NA) 130 219 207 199 (NA) (X) (X) (X) (X) 275 580 455 547 510 536 (X) (X) (X) (X) 156 321 258 302 286 299 (X) (X) (X) (X) 119 259 197 245 224 237 (X) (X)
  Community services block grant (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) 372 389 428 437 441 464 473 436 536 542 372 389 428 437 441 464 473 436 536 542 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
 
Jobs and training 1 (X) (X) (X) (X) (X) (X) (X) (X) (X) (X) 3,976 4,242 4,828 5,494 5,333 5,515 5,437 4,684 3,973 3,857 3,895 3,975 4,389 5,018 4,771 4,861 4,626 4,040 3,796 3,785 81 267 439 476 562 654 811 644 178 71
  Training for disadvantaged adults and youth 27 350 630 604 (NA) 642 420 507 481 483 499 1,886 1,745 1,779 1,774 1,692 1,597 1,124 977 1,022 1,085 1,886 1,745 1,779 1,774 1,692 1,597 1,124 977 1,022 1,085 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
  JOBS/Welfare-to-Work 28 1,013 444 461 483 541 579 632 665 (NA) (NA) 297 452 917 1,004 1,200 1,401 1,767 1,470 283 26 267 265 562 617 729 841 1,051 878 169 17 30 187 355 387 471 560 716 592 114 9
  Job Corps 41 61 62 101 102 97 100 68 65 70 617 803 868 955 966 1,040 1,089 1,094 1,154 1,246 617 803 868 955 966 1,040 1,089 1,094 1,154 1,246 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
  Summer youth employment program 29 785 585 554 783 615 574 489 411 493 530 725 709 700 1,183 894 877 867 625 871 871 725 709 700 1,183 894 877 867 625 871 871 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
  Senior community service employment program b 64 65 64 65 65 68 65 62 62 62 362 408 433 439 440 456 440 414 514 489 326 367 390 395 396 410 396 373 463 440 36 41 43 44 44 46 44 41 51 49
 
Energy assistance 1 (X) (X) (X) (X) (X) (X) (X) (X) (X) (X) 2,292 1,728 1,919 1,773 1,605 1,994 1,682 1,251 1,406 1,321 2,261 1,604 1,806 1,685 1,534 1,917 1,601 1,179 1,342 1,257 31 124 113 88 71 77 81 73 64 64
  Low-income energy assistance 3 30 6,800 5,800 6,100 6,200 5,600 6,000 5,500 4,300 (NA) (NA) 2,095 1,567 1,723 1,588 1,417 1,719 1,402 1,076 1,221 1,132 2,070 1,443 1,610 1,500 1,346 1,710 1,386 1,067 1,221 1,132 25 124 113 88 71 9 16 9 (NA) (NA)
 
Other 28 31 (X) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) 29 (X) (X) (X) (X) (X) 303 273 501 318 812 (X) (X) (X) (X) (X) 303 273 501 318 812 (X) (X) (X) (X) (X) (X) (X) (X) (X) (X) (X) (X) (X) (X)




NA Not available. X Not applicable.
1 Includes other programs not shown separately.
2 Recipient data represent unduplicated annual number.
3 Expenditures include administrative expenses.
4 Medical care for veterans with a nonservice-connected disability.
a Until 1996 estimated number of patients discharged from hospital during year or estimated yearly number of inpatients.
5 Estimated expenditures.
6 Includes state-administered SSI supplements.
7 Aid to families with dependent children program and its successor, Temporary Assistance for Needy Families (TANF), established by P.L. 104-193 Excludes data for foster care program and child support operations (cost and collections).
8 Estimated recipients.
9 Estimated recipients as of September.
10 Includes dependents and survivors.
11 Includes Puerto Rico's nutritional assistance program.
12 Free and reduced-price segments.
13 Includes estimate of commodity assistance.
14 Special supplemental food program for women, infants and children.
15 Recipient data are numbers of children receiving free or reduced price meals and snacks in child care centers and estimates of children in family day care homes with incomes below 185 percent of poverty. |
16 No income test required but preference given to those with greatest need.
17 Recipient data represent units eligible for payment at end of year.
18 Includes operating subsidies and HUD-administered Indian housing.
19 Recipient data represent total families or dwelling units during year.
20 Expenditure data represent amounts obligated.
21 Recipient data are housing units provided or rehabilitated.
22 Recipient data are total numbers for the school year ending in year shown.
23 Expenditure data are appropriations available for school year ending the fiscal year named.
24 Nonfederal expenditure data are rough estimates.
25 Includes one-time authorization of $1 billion for enterprise communities and empowerment zones.
26 Recipient data are estimated number of children served. P.L. 104-193 ended AFDC and its related child care programs and established a new mandatory child care block grant.
27 Recipient data are total number of participants.
28 Job opportunities and basic skills training program (JOBS) ended by P.L. 104-193, and the Welfare-to-Work program for AFDC and TANF adults, respectively.
29 Total participants (June-August).
b Recipient data represent annual number of jobs authorized.
30 Households served during the year with heating and winter crisis Federal funds include amounts transferred to other programs serving the needy.
31 Includes State Legalization Impact Assistance Grants, first offered in 1988, to offset State and local costs of welfare, health care, and education provided to legalized aliens.

Source: Library of Congress, Congressional Research Service, "Cash and Noncash Benefits for Persons With Limited Income: Eligibility Rules, Recipient and Expenditure Data, FY1996-FY1998" CRS Report RL30401; December 15, 1999; and earlier reports.



https://allcountries.org/uscensus/605_cash_and_noncash_benefits_for_persons.html

These tables are based on figures supplied by the United States Census Bureau, U.S. Department of Commerce and are subject to revision by the Census Bureau.

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