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2. Vital Statistics
3. Health and Nutrition
5. Law Enforcement, Courts
6. Geography and Environment
7. Parks, Recreation, Travel
9. State and Local Government
Finances and Employment
10. Federal Government
Finances and Employment
11. National Defense and
12. Social Insurance and Human
13. Labor Force, Employment,
14. Income, Expenditures, and
16. Banking, Finance, and
17. Business Enterprise
18. Communications and
20. Science and Technology
21. Transportation - Land
22. Transportation - Air
24. Natural Resources
25. Construction and Housing
27. Domestic Trade and
28. Foreign Commerce and Aid
29. Outlying Areas
30. Comparative International
31. Industrial Outlook
32. 1997 Economic Census
NA Not available.
1 Includes employees outside the United States.
Source: U.S. Census Bureau, Historical Statistics on Governmental Finances and Employment, and Public Employment, series GE, No. 1, annual.
http://www.census.gov/govs/www/apes.html * DEFINITIONS AND EXPLANATIONS OF SELECTED TERMS
GOVERNMENT UNITS AND TYPES OF GOVERNMENTS
Government units. A government is an organized entity whose governmental character is evidenced by popular election of the officials or their appointment by public officials, a high degree of public accountability, and the power to raise revenue to provide authorized services. In addition, a government unit must have sufficient discretion in the management of its own affairs to distinguish it from the administrative structure of any
other government unit.1
Federal Government. The term Federal encompasses all civilian employees and payrolls of the U.S. Government, including the legislative and judicial branches and all departments and independent agencies of the executive branch. Excluded are the uniformed employees and payrolls of the armed forces. District of Columbia data are excluded from this category and included with data for municipalities.
State governments. This category refers to the governments of the 50 states which constitute the United States. The state government in each case consists of the legislative, executive, and judicial branches of government and all departments, boards, commissions, institutions of higher education, and other organizational units. It also includes any semi-autonomous authorities , districts, and other agencies that are subject to administrative and fiscal control by the state through its appointment of officers, determination of budgets, approval of plans, and other devices.
Local governments. The Bureau of the Census classifies local governments by five major types -- county, municipal, township, school district, and special district. Following is a brief discussion of each type of local government:
County -- Organized county governments are found throughout the Nation except in Connecticut, the District of Columbia, Rhode Island, and limited portions of a few other states. These governments are legally designated as "boroughs" in Alaska and "parishes" in Louisiana. Excluded from county government statistics and included with municipalities or townships are certain local governments that combine area and governmental characteristics of both counties and municipalities or townships.
Municipal -- A municipality is a political subdivision within which a municipal corporation has been established to provide general local government services for a specific population concentration in a defined area. A municipality may be legally termed a city, village, borough (except in Alaska), or town (except in the six New England States, Minnesota, New York, and Wisconsin). Included in this category are certain cities that are completely or substantially consolidated with their county governments, operate outside the geographic limits of any county, or for other reasons have no organized county government operations within their boundaries. Comprising this group are the following cities: Anaconda (MT), Anchorage (AK), Athens (GA), Baltimore (MD), Baton Rouge (LA), Boston (MA), Butte (MT), Carson City (NV), Columbus (GA), Denver (CO), Honolulu (HI), Houma (LA), Indianapolis (IN), Jacksonville (FL), Juneau (AK), Lexington (KY), Lynchburg (TN), Nashville (TN), New Orleans (LA), New York (NY), Philadelphia (PA), St. Louis (MO), Sitka (AK), San Francisco (CA), and Washington, DC, as well as the "independent cities" in Virginia. Nantucket, MA is included with townships.
Township -- Township governments, as distinguished from municipalities, are created to serve inhabitants of areas defined without regard to population concentration. This classification is applied to local governments in 20 states, including government units officially designated "towns" in the six New England states, New York, and Wisconsin; some "plantations" in Maine; and "locations" in New Hampshire. In Minnesota, the terms "town" and "township" are used interchangeably with reference to township governments.
School district -- There is a marked organizational diversity in the types of government units that provide for the operation of public schools. School districts, which are government entities that are fiscally and administratively independent of any other government, are found in all but five States (Alaska, Hawaii, Maryland, North Carolina, and Virginia) and the District of Columbia. Dependent school systems are administrative agencies of other governments (State, county, municipal, or township) and are not counted as separate government entities by the Bureau of the Census. Dependent school systems are found exclusively in the District of Columbia and the five states noted above and also exist in 12 other states.
Special district -- Special districts are local government units created to provide specific services that are not being supplied by other governments. These government units are known by a variety of titles including districts, authorities, boards, and commissions. A majority of special districts are established to perform a single function, but some have been given authority to provide several, usually related, kinds of services.
SUBJECT MATTER CONCEPTS
Employment and employees. Employment refers to all persons gainfully employed by and performing services for a government. Employees include all persons paid for personal services performed, including persons paid from Federally funded programs, paid elected or appointed officials, persons in a paid leave status, and persons paid on a per meeting, annual, semiannual, or quarterly basis. Unpaid officials, pensioners, persons whose work is performed on a fee basis, and contractors and their employees are excluded from the count of employees. Full-time employees are defined to include those persons whose hours of work represent full-time employment in their employer government; part-time employees are those persons who work less than the standard number of hours for full-time work in their employer government.
Full-time equivalent employment. A computed statistic representing the number of full-time employees that could have been employed if the reported number of hours worked by part-time employees had been worked by full-time employees. This statistic is calculated separately for each function of a government by dividing the "part-time hours paid" by the standard number of hours for full-time employees in the particular government and then adding the resulting quotient to the number of full-time employees.
October payroll. Payroll amounts represent gross payrolls for the 1-month period of October (31 days). The gross payroll includes all salaries, wages, fees, commissions, bonuses, or awards paid to employees during the pay period which included the date of October 12. Payroll amounts reported for a period other than 1 month were converted to represent an amount for the month of October.
These tables are based on figures supplied by the United States Census Bureau, U.S. Department of Commerce and are subject to revision by the Census Bureau.
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