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32. 1997 Economic Census





524. Governmental Employment and Payrolls

[Employees in thousands (13,028 represents 13,028,000), payroll in millions of dollars (8,334 represents $8,334,000,000). For 1970 to 1995 as of October; 1997 as of March. 1996 data are not available. Covers both full-time and part-time employees. Local government data are estimates subject to sampling variation; see appendex III and source].

 
Type of government 1970 1980 1981 1982 1983 1984 1985 1986 1987 1987 1988 1989 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1997 1998 1999 2000
 
Employees (1,000)
     Total 13,028 16,213 15,968 15,841 16,034 16,436 16,690 16,933 17,281 17,212 17,588 17,879 18,369 18,554 18,745 18,823 19,420 19,521 19,540 19,854
Federal (civilian) 1 2,881 2,898 2,865 2,848 2,875 2,942 3,021 3,019 3,091 3,091 3,112 3,114 3,105 3,103 3,047 2,999 2,952 2,895 2,807 2,765
State and local 10,147 13,315 13,103 12,993 13,159 13,494 13,669 13,913 14,190 14,121 14,476 14,765 15,263 15,452 15,698 15,824 16,468 16,626 16,733 17,089
    Percent of total 78 82 82 82 82 82 82 82 82 82 82 83 83 83 84 84 85 85 86 86
  State 2,755 3,753 3,726 3,744 3,816 3,898 3,984 4,068 4,115 4,116 4,236 4,365 4,503 4,521 4,595 4,673 4,694 4,719 4,733 4,758
  Local 7,392 9,562 9,377 9,249 9,344 9,595 9,685 9,846 10,076 10,005 10,240 10,400 10,760 10,930 11,103 11,151 11,775 11,906 12,000 12,271
    Counties 1,229 1,853 1,808 1,824 1,811 1,872 1,891 1,926 1,963 1,963 2,024 2,085 2,167 2,196 2,253 2,270 (NA) (NA) 2,425 (NA)
    Municipalities 2,244 2,561 2,469 2,397 2,424 2,434 2,467 2,494 2,541 2,493 2,570 2,569 2,642 2,662 2,665 2,644 (NA) (NA) 2,755 (NA)
    School districts 3,316 4,270 4,222 4,194 4,211 4,387 4,416 4,502 4,620 4,627 4,679 4,774 4,950 5,045 5,134 (NA) (NA) (NA) 455 (NA)
    Townships 330 394 386 356 379 386 392 400 414 393 415 405 418 415 424 (NA) (NA) (NA) 5,675 (NA)
    Special districts 275 484 492 478 519 516 519 524 537 529 552 568 585 612 627 (NA) (NA) (NA) 691 (NA)
 
OCTOBER PAYROLLS
(Mil. dol.)
 
     Total 8,334 19,935 21,193 23,173 24,525 26,904 28,945 30,670 32,382 32,669 34,203 36,763 39,228 41,237 43,120 (NA) (NA) (NA) 49,156 51,568
Federal (civilian) 1 2,428 5,205 5,239 5,959 6,301 7,137 7,580 7,561 7,924 7,924 7,976 8,636 8,999 9,687 9,937 (NA) (NA) (NA) 9,744 10,115
State and local 5,906 14,730 15,954 17,214 18,224 19,767 21,365 23,109 24,458 24,745 26,227 28,127 30,229 31,551 33,183 34,540 36,545 37,714 39,412 41,453
    Percent of total 71 74 75 74 74 74 74 75 76 76 77 77 77 77 77 (NA) (NA) (NA) 80 80
  State 1,612 4,285 4,668 5,022 5,346 5,815 6,329 6,810 7,298 7,263 7,842 8,443 9,083 9,437 9,828 10,288 10,666 10,927 11,413 11,845
  Local 4,294 10,445 11,287 12,192 12,878 13,952 15,036 16,298 17,160 17,482 18,385 19,684 21,146 22,113 23,355 24,252 25,878 26,787 27,999 29,608
    Counties 640 1,936 2,083 2,287 2,387 2,596 2,819 3,009 3,258 3,270 3,532 3,855 4,192 4,404 4,698 4,839 (NA) (NA) 5,750 (NA)
    Municipalities 1,361 2,951 3,222 3,428 3,640 3,872 4,191 4,407 4,687 4,770 4,979 5,274 5,564 5,784 6,207 6,328 (NA) (NA) 7,146 (NA)
    School districts 2,032 4,683 5,021 5,442 5,729 6,283 6,746 7,517 7,768 7,961 8,298 8,852 9,551 9,975 10,394 (NA) (NA) (NA) 869 (NA)
    Townships 122 330 349 370 398 421 446 474 508 522 556 599 642 664 685 (NA) (NA) (NA) 12,579 (NA)
    Special districts 140 546 612 665 724 780 834 892 938 959 1,020 1,104 1,197 1,287 1,370 (NA) (NA) (NA) 1,654 (NA)


NA Not available.
1 Includes employees outside the United States.

Source: U.S. Census Bureau, Historical Statistics on Governmental Finances and Employment, and Public Employment, series GE, No. 1, annual.


http://www.census.gov/govs/www/apes.html * DEFINITIONS AND EXPLANATIONS OF SELECTED TERMS

GOVERNMENT UNITS AND TYPES OF GOVERNMENTS

Government units. A government is an organized entity whose governmental character is evidenced by popular election of the officials or their appointment by public officials, a high degree of public accountability, and the power to raise revenue to provide authorized services. In addition, a government unit must have sufficient discretion in the management of its own affairs to distinguish it from the administrative structure of any
other government unit.1

Federal Government. The term Federal encompasses all civilian employees and payrolls of the U.S. Government, including the legislative and judicial branches and all departments and independent agencies of the executive branch. Excluded are the uniformed employees and payrolls of the armed forces. District of Columbia data are excluded from this category and included with data for municipalities.

State governments. This category refers to the governments of the 50 states which constitute the United States. The state government in each case consists of the legislative, executive, and judicial branches of government and all departments, boards, commissions, institutions of higher education, and other organizational units. It also includes any semi-autonomous authorities , districts, and other agencies that are subject to administrative and fiscal control by the state through its appointment of officers, determination of budgets, approval of plans, and other devices.

Local governments. The Bureau of the Census classifies local governments by five major types -- county, municipal, township, school district, and special district. Following is a brief discussion of each type of local government:

County -- Organized county governments are found throughout the Nation except in Connecticut, the District of Columbia, Rhode Island, and limited portions of a few other states. These governments are legally designated as "boroughs" in Alaska and "parishes" in Louisiana. Excluded from county government statistics and included with municipalities or townships are certain local governments that combine area and governmental characteristics of both counties and municipalities or townships.

Municipal -- A municipality is a political subdivision within which a municipal corporation has been established to provide general local government services for a specific population concentration in a defined area. A municipality may be legally termed a city, village, borough (except in Alaska), or town (except in the six New England States, Minnesota, New York, and Wisconsin). Included in this category are certain cities that are completely or substantially consolidated with their county governments, operate outside the geographic limits of any county, or for other reasons have no organized county government operations within their boundaries. Comprising this group are the following cities: Anaconda (MT), Anchorage (AK), Athens (GA), Baltimore (MD), Baton Rouge (LA), Boston (MA), Butte (MT), Carson City (NV), Columbus (GA), Denver (CO), Honolulu (HI), Houma (LA), Indianapolis (IN), Jacksonville (FL), Juneau (AK), Lexington (KY), Lynchburg (TN), Nashville (TN), New Orleans (LA), New York (NY), Philadelphia (PA), St. Louis (MO), Sitka (AK), San Francisco (CA), and Washington, DC, as well as the "independent cities" in Virginia. Nantucket, MA is included with townships.

Township -- Township governments, as distinguished from municipalities, are created to serve inhabitants of areas defined without regard to population concentration. This classification is applied to local governments in 20 states, including government units officially designated "towns" in the six New England states, New York, and Wisconsin; some "plantations" in Maine; and "locations" in New Hampshire. In Minnesota, the terms "town" and "township" are used interchangeably with reference to township governments.

School district -- There is a marked organizational diversity in the types of government units that provide for the operation of public schools. School districts, which are government entities that are fiscally and administratively independent of any other government, are found in all but five States (Alaska, Hawaii, Maryland, North Carolina, and Virginia) and the District of Columbia. Dependent school systems are administrative agencies of other governments (State, county, municipal, or township) and are not counted as separate government entities by the Bureau of the Census. Dependent school systems are found exclusively in the District of Columbia and the five states noted above and also exist in 12 other states.

Special district -- Special districts are local government units created to provide specific services that are not being supplied by other governments. These government units are known by a variety of titles including districts, authorities, boards, and commissions. A majority of special districts are established to perform a single function, but some have been given authority to provide several, usually related, kinds of services.

SUBJECT MATTER CONCEPTS

Employment and employees. Employment refers to all persons gainfully employed by and performing services for a government. Employees include all persons paid for personal services performed, including persons paid from Federally funded programs, paid elected or appointed officials, persons in a paid leave status, and persons paid on a per meeting, annual, semiannual, or quarterly basis. Unpaid officials, pensioners, persons whose work is performed on a fee basis, and contractors and their employees are excluded from the count of employees. Full-time employees are defined to include those persons whose hours of work represent full-time employment in their employer government; part-time employees are those persons who work less than the standard number of hours for full-time work in their employer government.

Full-time equivalent employment. A computed statistic representing the number of full-time employees that could have been employed if the reported number of hours worked by part-time employees had been worked by full-time employees. This statistic is calculated separately for each function of a government by dividing the "part-time hours paid" by the standard number of hours for full-time employees in the particular government and then adding the resulting quotient to the number of full-time employees.

October payroll. Payroll amounts represent gross payrolls for the 1-month period of October (31 days). The gross payroll includes all salaries, wages, fees, commissions, bonuses, or awards paid to employees during the pay period which included the date of October 12. Payroll amounts reported for a period other than 1 month were converted to represent an amount for the month of October.

*



https://allcountries.org/uscensus/524_governmental_employment_and_payrolls.html

These tables are based on figures supplied by the United States Census Bureau, U.S. Department of Commerce and are subject to revision by the Census Bureau.

Copyright © 2006 Photius Coutsoukis and Information Technology Associates, all rights reserved.