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41. Social and Economic Characteristics of the White and Black Populations

[As of March, except labor force status, annual average (223,160 represents 223,160,000). Excludes members of Armed Forces except those living off post or with their families on post. Data for 1980-93 are based on 1980 census population controls; beginning 1994, based on 1990 census population controls. Based on Current Population Survey; see text, this section, and Appendix III]

   
NUMBER (1,000) NUMBER (1,000) PERCENT PERCENT
NUMBER (!,000) NUMBER (!,000) NUMBER (!,000) NUMBER (!,000) NUMBER (!,000) DISTRIBUTION DISTRIBUTION
                                                                               
CHARACTERISTIC All races a All races a All races a All races a White White White White White Black Black Black Black Black White White Black Black
                                                                             
1980 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 1980 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 1980 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 1980 1990 1995 1999 1980 1990 1995 1999
 
  Total persons 223,160 246,191 248,886 251,447 254,241 259,753 262,105 264,314 266,792 269,094 271,743 191,905 206,983 208,754 210,257 211,955 215,221 216,751 218,442 220,070 221,650 223,294 26,033 30,392 30,895 31,439 32,036 33,040 33,531 33,889 34,218 34,598 35,070 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0
Under 5 years old 16,319 18,932 19,299 19,566 19,834 20,458 20,300 20,069 19,781 19,686 19,601 13,307 15,161 15,357 15,487 15,611 16,055 15,915 15,736 15,546 15,547 15,429 2,444 2,932 3,069 3,172 3,262 3,357 3,342 3,243 3,127 3,023 3,025 6.9 7.3 7.3 6.9 9.4 9.6 10.0 8.6
5-14 years old 34,979 35,467 36,067 36,625 37,153 38,525 39,073 39,621 39,776 40,117 40,466 28,828 28,405 28,829 29,199 29,543 30,391 30,786 31,110 31,228 31,394 31,652 5,190 5,546 5,628 5,725 5,837 6,183 6,268 6,432 6,464 6,577 6,599 15.0 13.7 14.2 14.2 19.9 18.2 18.7 18.8
15-44 years old 103,493 115,690 116,395 116,491 116,634 119,731 120,016 120,298 120,870 120,896 121,141 88,570 96,656 97,075 96,735 96,423 97,917 97,876 98,146 98,314 98,144 97,975 12,247 14,660 14,809 14,983 15,180 15,907 16,101 16,154 16,320 16,420 16,584 46.2 46.6 45.2 43.9 47.0 48.2 48.0 47.3
45-64 years old 44,174 46,536 47,031 48,175 49,750 50,259 51,449 52,668 54,488 56,312 58,141 39,302 40,282 40,594 41,538 42,876 43,278 44,189 45,016 46,517 48,011 49,478 4,112 4,766 4,842 4,953 5,098 5,082 5,264 5,582 5,691 5,887 6,139 20.5 19.5 20.4 22.2 15.8 15.7 15.7 17.5
65 years old and over 24,194 29,566 30,093 30,590 30,870 30,779 31,267 31,658 31,877 32,082 32,394 21,898 26,479 26,898 27,297 27,501 27,580 27,985 28,436 28,464 28,553 28,759 2,040 2,487 2,547 2,606 2,660 2,510 2,557 2,478 2,616 2,691 2,723 11.4 12.8 12.9 12.9 7.8 8.2 7.6 7.8
 
EDUCATIONAL ATTAINMENT
  Persons 25 years old and over 130,409 156,538 158,694 160,838 162,826 164,512 166,438 168,323 170,581 172,211 173,754 114,763 134,687 136,299 137,657 139,019 139,760 141,113 142,733 144,058 145,078 146,080 12,927 16,751 17,096 17,445 17,786 18,103 18,457 18,715 19,072 19,376 19,732 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0
 
Elementary: 0-8 years 22,817 17,591 16,849 15,439 15,127 14,514 13,947 13,622 13,312 12,782 12,397 18,739 14,131 13,527 12,426 12,189 11,796 11,101 11,141 10,837 10,547 10,206 3,559 2,701 2,607 2,317 2,183 1,860 1,800 1,734 1,685 1,564 1,544 16.3 10.5 7.9 7.0 27.5 16.1 9.8 7.8
 
High school: 1-3 years 18,086 17,461 17,379 1 17,672 1 17,067 1 16,925 1 16,565 1 17,102 1 17,212 1 16,776 1 16,443 15,064 14,080 13,882 1 13,911 1 13,479 1 13,340 1 12,882 1 13,461 1 13,590 1 13,094 1 12,743 2,748 2,969 3,085 1 3,324 1 3,079 1 3,048 1 3,041 1 3,085 1 3,106 1 3,078 1 3,000 13.1 10.5 1 9.1 1 8.7 21.3 17.7 1 16.5 1 15.2
             4 years 47,934 60,119 61,272 2 57,864 2 57,589 2 56,515 2 56,450 2 56,559 2 57,586 2 58,174 2 57,935 43,149 52,449 53,250 2 50,049 2 49,538 2 48,236 2 47,986 2 48,356 2 48,860 2 49,221 2 48,970 3,980 6,239 6,448 2 6,220 2 6,451 2 6,549 2 6,686 2 6,576 2 6,835 2 6,972 2 7,042 37.6 38.9 2 34.0 2 33.5 30.8 37.2 2 36.2 2 35.7
College: 1-3 years 19,379 28,075 29,169 3 35,523 3 37,451 3 40,014 3 41,250 3 41,372 3 41,774 3 42,506 3 43,175 17,350 24,350 25,358 3 30,915 3 32,428 3 34,331 3 35,321 3 35,161 3 35,339 3 36,013 3 36,367 1,618 2,952 2,990 3 3,502 3 3,909 3 4,310 3 4,486 3 4,769 3 4,912 3 4,906 3 5,103 15.1 18.1 3 25.0 3 24.9 12.5 17.6 3 24.3 3 25.9
         4 years or more 22,193 33,291 34,025 4 34,340 4 35,591 4 36,544 4 38,226 4 39,668 4 40,697 4 41,974 4 43,803 20,460 29,677 30,283 4 30,356 4 31,385 4 32,057 4 33,824 4 34,614 4 35,431 4 36,204 4 37,793 1,024 1,890 1,966 4 2,080 4 2,164 4 2,337 4 2,444 4 2,551 4 2,534 4 2,857 4 3,043 17.8 22.0 4 24.0 4 25.9 7.9 11.3 4 13.2 4 15.5
 
LABOR FORCE STATUS 5
  Civilians 16 years old and over 167,745 189,164 189,765 191,576 192,955 196,814 198,584 200,591 203,133 205,220 207,753 146,122 160,625 161,511 162,658 163,921 165,555 166,914 168,317 169,993 171,478 173,085 17,824 21,477 21,615 21,958 22,329 22,879 23,246 23,604 24,003 24,373 24,855 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0
Civilian labor force 106,940 125,840 125,303 126,982 126,393 131,056 132,304 133,943 136,297 137,673 139,368 93,600 107,447 107,486 108,526 109,359 111,082 111,950 113,108 114,693 115,415 116,509 10,865 13,740 13,542 13,891 13,943 14,502 14,817 15,134 15,529 15,982 16,365 64.1 66.9 67.1 67.3 61.0 64.0 63.7 65.8
  Employed 99,303 118,793 116,877 117,598 116,978 123,060 124,900 126,708 129,558 131,463 133,488 87,715 102,261 101,039 101,479 102,812 105,190 106,490 107,808 109,856 110,931 112,235 9,313 12,175 11,863 11,933 12,146 12,835 13,279 13,542 13,969 14,556 15,056 60.0 63.7 63.8 64.8 52.2 56.7 57.1 60.6
  Unemployed 7,637 7,047 8,426 9,384 9,415 7,996 7,404 7,236 6,739 6,210 5,880 5,884 5,186 6,447 7,047 6,547 5,892 5,459 5,300 4,836 4,484 4,273 1,553 1,565 1,679 1,958 1,796 1,666 1,538 1,592 1,560 1,426 1,309 4.0 3.2 3.3 2.5 8.7 7.3 6.6 5.3
    Unemployment rate 6 7.1 5.6 6.7 7.4 7.4 6.1 5.6 5.4 4.9 4.5 4.2 6.3 4.8 6.0 6.5 6.0 5.3 4.9 4.7 4.2 3.9 3.7 14.3 11.4 12.4 14.1 12.9 11.5 10.4 10.5 10.0 8.9 8.0 (X) (X) (X) (X) (X) (X) (X) (X)
Not in labor force 60,806 63,324 64,462 64,593 66,562 65,758 66,280 66,647 66,837 67,547 68,385 52,523 53,178 54,025 54,132 54,562 54,473 54,965 55,209 55,301 56,064 56,577 6,959 7,737 8,074 8,067 8,386 8,377 8,429 8,470 8,474 8,391 8,490 35.9 33.1 32.9 32.7 39.0 36.0 36.3 34.2
 
FAMILY TYPE
  Total families 59,550 66,090 66,322 67,173 68,144 68,490 69,305 69,594 70,241 70,880 71,535 52,243 56,590 56,803 57,224 57,858 57,870 58,437 58,869 58,934 59,511 60,068 6,184 7,470 7,471 7,716 7,888 7,989 8,093 8,055 8,455 8,408 8,444 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0
    With own children 7 31,022 32,289 32,401 32,746 33,257 34,018 34,296 34,203 34,665 34,760 34,613 26,474 26,718 26,794 27,045 27,335 27,642 27,951 28,086 28,236 28,336 28,240 3,820 4,378 4,380 4,445 4,560 4,793 4,682 4,583 4,886 4,848 4,714 50.7 47.2 47.8 47.0 61.8 58.6 57.9 55.8
Married couple 49,112 52,317 52,147 52,457 53,171 53,171 53,858 53,567 53,604 54,317 54,770 44,751 46,981 47,014 47,124 47,601 47,443 47,899 47,873 47,650 48,066 48,456 3,433 3,750 3,569 3,631 3,748 3,714 3,842 3,713 3,851 3,921 3,975 85.7 83.0 82.0 80.7 55.5 50.2 47.5 47.1
  With own children 7 24,961 24,537 24,397 24,420 24,707 25,058 25,241 24,920 25,083 25,269 25,066 22,415 21,579 21,531 21,517 21,686 21,884 22,005 21,835 21,914 21,910 21,759 1,927 1,972 1,884 1,926 1,945 1,924 1,926 1,901 1,974 2,055 1,971 42.9 38.1 37.7 36.2 31.2 26.4 23.8 23.3
Female householder, no spouse present 8,705 10,890 11,268 11,693 11,947 12,406 12,220 12,514 12,790 12,652 12,789 6,052 7,306 7,512 7,726 7,848 8,130 8,031 8,284 8,339 8,308 8,526 2,495 3,275 3,430 3,582 3,680 3,825 3,716 3,769 3,947 3,926 3,809 11.6 12.9 13.7 14.2 40.3 43.8 45.9 45.1
  With own children 7 5,445 6,599 6,823 7,043 7,226 7,647 7,615 7,656 7,874 7,693 7,841 3,558 4,199 4,337 4,488 4,552 4,748 4,841 4,975 4,997 4,912 5,110 1,793 2,232 2,294 2,335 2,434 2,630 2,489 2,404 2,594 2,569 2,477 6.8 7.4 8.3 8.5 29.0 29.9 30.8 29.3
Male householder, no spouse present 1,733 2,884 2,907 3,025 3,026 2,913 3,226 3,513 3,847 3,911 3,976 1,441 2,303 2,276 2,374 2,409 2,297 2,507 2,712 2,944 3,137 3,086 256 446 472 504 460 450 536 573 657 562 660 2.8 4.1 4.3 5.1 4.1 6.0 6.6 7.8
  With own children 7 616 1,153 1,181 1,283 1,324 1,314 1,440 1,628 1,709 1,798 1,706 500 939 925 1,040 1,098 1,010 1,105 1,276 1,325 1,514 1,371 99 173 202 184 182 238 267 278 319 223 266 1.0 1.7 1.9 2.3 1.6 2.3 3.3 3.2
 
FAMILY INCOME IN 1990 1990 1990
PREVIOUS YEAR IN census pop census pop census pop
CONSTANT (1998) DOLLARS controls controls controls
  Total families 8 (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) 71,551 (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) 59,515 60,077 (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) 8,408 8,452 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0
Less than $5,000 (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) 1,902 (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) 1,225 (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) 545 1.5 1.8 2.0 2.0 5.2 7.4 7.4 6.5
$5,000 to $9,999 (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) 2,691 (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) 1,768 (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) 806 3.1 3.2 3.9 2.9 12.0 12.1 11.9 9.5
$10,000 to $14,999 (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) 3,799 (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) 2,844 (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) 1,618 4.8 4.7 5.3 4.7 12.2 9.7 10.3 9.5
$15,000 to $24,999 (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) 8,811 (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) 6,995 (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) 697 12.8 12.2 13.0 11.6 20.5 18.4 16.9 17.9
$25,000 to $34,999 (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) 9,052 (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) 7,570 (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) 1,145 13.8 12.9 13.4 12.6 13.7 13.2 14.1 13.6
$35,000 to $49,999 (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) 11,995 (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) 10,268 (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) 1,245 21.1 18.7 18.3 17.1 16.0 15.5 14.7 14.7
$50,000 or more (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) 33,301 (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) 29,404 (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) 2,395 42.8 46.5 44.0 48.9 20.3 23.6 24.6 28.4
 
Median income (dol.) 9 43,144 44,974 44,090 43,011 42,490 41,691 42,655 43,436 43,945 45,262 46,737 45,021 47,290 46,038 45,218 44,927 44,331 44,967 45,612 46,496 47,482 49,023 25,494 26,565 26,717 25,788 24,517 24,300 27,164 27,776 27,553 29,048 29,404 (X) (X) (X) (X) (X) (X) (X) (X)
 
POVERTY
 
Families below poverty level 10 5,461 6,784 7,098 7,712 8,144 8,393 8,053 7,532 7,708 7,324 7,186 3,581 4,409 4,622 5,022 5,255 5,452 5,312 4,994 5,059 4,990 4,829 1,722 2,077 2,193 2,343 2,484 2,499 2,212 2,127 2,206 1,986 1,981 6.9 7.8 9.1 8.0 27.8 27.8 27.3 23.4
Persons below poverty level 10 26,072 31,528 33,585 35,708 38,014 39,265 38,059 36,425 36,529 35,574 34,476 17,214 20,785 22,326 23,747 25,259 26,226 25,379 24,423 24,650 24,396 23,454 8,050 9,302 9,837 10,242 10,827 10,877 10,196 9,872 9,694 9,116 9,091 9.0 10.0 11.7 10.5 31.0 30.7 30.6 26.1
 
    HOUSING TENURE
 
  Total occupied units 80,776 93,347 94,312 95,669 96,391 97,107 98,990 99,627 101,018 102,528 103,874 70,766 80,163 80,968 81,675 82,083 82,387 83,737 84,511 85,059 86,106 87,212 8,586 10,486 10,671 11,083 11,190 11,281 11,655 11,577 12,109 12,474 12,579 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0
Owner-occupied 54,891 59,846 60,395 61,310 62,220 62,374 64,045 65,143 66,356 67,873 69,241 49,913 54,094 54,527 55,117 55,915 55,879 57,449 58,282 58,826 60,050 61,350 4,173 4,445 4,526 4,683 4,726 4,791 4,888 5,085 5,510 5,735 5,723 70.5 67.5 68.6 70.3 48.6 42.4 41.9 45.5
Renter-occupied 24,421 31,895 32,218 32,705 32,499 32,901 33,159 32,768 32,968 32,954 33,035 19,581 24,685 24,976 25,167 24,785 24,955 24,793 24,798 24,802 24,635 24,526 4,257 5,862 5,945 6,183 6,235 6,268 6,547 6,290 6,400 6,529 6,664 27.7 30.8 29.6 28.1 49.6 55.9 56.2 53.0
No cash rent 1,464 1,606 1,698 1,654 1,672 1,831 1,787 1,716 1,693 1,701 1,598 1,272 1,384 1,466 1,391 1,383 1,553 1,494 1,430 1,432 1,421 1,337 156 178 200 217 229 222 220 201 200 210 192 1.8 1.7 1.8 1.5 1.8 1.7 1.9 1.5




NA Not available.
X Not applicable. a Includes other races not shown separately.
1 Represents those who completed 9th to 12th grade, but have no high school diploma.
2 High school graduate.
3 Some college or associate degree.
4 Bachelor's or advanced degree.
5 Source: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, Employment and Earnings, January issues. Data beginning 1990, 1994, 1997, 1998, and 1999 not directly comparable with data for earlier years. See text, section 13, Labor Force and February 1994, March 1996, and February 1997-99 issues of Employment and Earnings.
6 Total unemployment as percent of civilian labor force.
7 Children under 18 years old.
8 Includes families in group quarters.
9 For definition of median, see Guide to Tabular Presentation.
10 For explanation of poverty level, see text, Section 14, Income.

Source: Except as noted, U.S. Census Bureau, Current Population Reports, P20-530, and earlier reports; P60-206; P60-207; and unpublished data.

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These tables are based on figures supplied by the United States Census Bureau, U.S. Department of Commerce and are subject to revision by the Census Bureau.

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