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371. Prisoners Under Jurisdiction of State and Federal Correctional Authorities by State

[For years ending December 31]

 
FIPS 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998
CODES
State 1980 1985 1986 1987 1988 1989 1990 Percent Percent Percent Percent Percent Percent Percent Percent
change, change, change, change, change, change, change, change,
Total 1990- Total 1991- Total 1992- Total 1993- Total 1994- Total 1995- Total 1996- Total 1997-
1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998
 
    United States . 00000 329,821 503,271 545,133 584,435 627,588 712,364 773,919 825,619 6.7 882,500 6.9 969,301 9.8 1,054,702 8.8 1,125,874 6.7 1,183,368 5.1 1,240,962 4.9 1,302,019 4.9
 
Federal .. 24,363 40,223 44,408 48,300 49,928 59,171 65,526 71,608 9.3 80,259 12.1 89,587 11.6 95,034 6.1 100,250 5.5 105,691 5.4 112,973 6.9 123,041 8.9
State 305,458 463,048 500,725 536,135 577,660 653,193 708,393 754,011 6.4 802,241 6.4 879,714 9.7 959,668 9.1 1,025,624 6.9 1,077,677 5.1 1,127,989 4.7 1,178,978 4.5
  |
Alabama 01000 6,543 11,015 11,710 12,827 12,610 13,907 15,665 16,760 7.0 17,453 4.1 18,624 6.7 19,573 5.1 20,718 5.8 21,760 5.0 22,290 2.4 23,326 4.6
Alaska 1 02000 822 2,329 2,460 2,528 2,588 2,744 2,622 2,706 3.2 2,865 5.9 2,703 -5.7 3,292 21.8 3,522 7.0 3,716 5.5 4,165 12.1 4,097 -1.6
Arizona 2 04000 4,372 8,531 9,434 10,948 12,095 13,251 14,261 15,415 8.1 16,477 6.9 17,811 8.1 19,746 10.9 21,341 8.1 22,493 5.4 23,484 4.4 25,311 7.8
Arkansas 05000 2,911 4,611 4,701 5,441 5,519 6,649 7,322 7,766 6.1 8,285 6.7 8,625 4.1 8,957 3.8 8,910 -0.5 9,407 5.6 10,021 6.5 10,638 6.2
California 06000 24,569 50,111 59,484 66,975 76,171 87,297 97,309 101,808 4.6 109,496 7.6 119,951 9.5 126,091 5.1 135,646 7.6 146,049 7.7 155,790 6.7 161,904 3.9
Colorado 08000 2,629 3,369 3,804 4,808 5,765 6,908 7,671 8,392 9.4 8,997 7.2 9,462 5.2 10,717 13.3 11,063 3.2 12,438 12.4 13,461 8.2 14,312 6.3
Connecticut 1 09000 4,308 6,149 6,905 7,511 8,005 9,301 10,500 10,977 4.5 11,403 3.9 13,691 20.1 14,380 5.0 14,802 2.9 17,851 20.6 17,241 -3.4 17,605 2.1
Delaware  1 10000 1,474 2,553 2,823 2,939 3,197 3,458 3,471 3,717 7.1 4,062 9.3 4,210 3.6 4,466 6.1 4,836 8.3 5,110 5.7 5,435 6.4 5,558 2.3
District of Columbia 1 11000 3,145 6,404 6,618 7,645 8,831 9,954 9,947 10,455 5.1 10,875 4.0 10,845 -0.3 10,949 1.0 9,800 -10.5 9,376 -4.3 9,353 -0.2 9,949 6.4
Florida 2 12000 20,735 28,600 32,237 32,445 34,732 39,999 44,387 46,533 4.8 48,302 3.8 53,048 9.8 57,163 7.8 63,879 11.7 63,763 -0.2 64,626 1.4 67,224 4.0
Georgia 2 13000 12,178 16,014 17,363 18,575 18,787 20,885 22,411 23,743 5.9 25,290 6.5 27,783 9.9 33,425 20.3 34,266 2.5 35,139 2.5 36,505 3.9 39,262 7.6
Hawaii 1 15000 985 2,111 2,180 2,268 2,300 2,459 2,533 2,700 6.6 2,926 8.4 3,129 6.9 3,333 6.5 3,560 6.8 4,011 12.7 4,978 24.1 4,924 -1.1
Idaho 16000 817 1,294 1,448 1,435 1,581 1,850 1,961 2,143 9.3 2,256 5.3 2,606 15.5 2,811 7.9 3,328 18.4 3,832 15.1 3,911 2.1 4,083 4.4
Illinois 2 17000 11,899 18,634 19,456 19,850 21,081 24,712 27,516 29,115 5.8 31,640 8.7 34,495 9.0 36,531 5.9 37,658 3.1 38,852 3.2 40,788 5.0 43,051 5.5
Indiana 18000 6,683 9,904 10,175 10,827 11,406 12,341 12,736 13,779 8.2 13,945 1.2 14,470 3.8 15,014 3.8 16,125 7.4 16,960 5.2 17,903 5.6 19,197 7.2
Iowa 2 19000 2,481 2,832 2,777 2,851 3,034 3,584 3,967 4,145 4.5 4,518 9.0 4,898 8.4 5,437 11.0 5,906 8.6 6,342 7.4 6,938 9.4 7,394 6.6
Kansas 20000 2,494 4,732 5,345 5,781 5,817 5,616 5,775 5,903 2.2 6,028 2.1 5,727 -5.0 6,371 11.2 7,054 10.7 7,756 10.0 7,911 2.0 8,183 3.4
Kentucky 21000 3,588 5,801 5,288 6,436 7,119 8,289 9,023 9,799 8.6 10,364 5.8 10,440 0.7 11,066 6.0 12,060 9.0 12,910 7.0 14,600 13.1 14,987 2.7
Louisiana 22000 8,889 13,890 14,300 15,375 16,242 17,257 18,599 20,003 7.5 20,980 4.9 22,468 7.1 24,063 7.1 25,195 4.7 26,779 6.3 29,265 9.3 32,227 10.1
Maine 23000 814 1,226 1,316 1,328 1,277 1,455 1,523 1,579 3.7 1,519 -3.8 1,469 -3.3 1,474 0.3 1,396 -5.3 1,426 2.1 1,620 13.6 1,612 -0.5
Maryland 24000 7,731 13,005 13,326 13,467 14,276 16,514 17,848 19,291 8.1 19,977 3.6 20,264 1.4 20,998 3.6 21,453 2.2 22,050 2.8 22,232 0.8 22,572 1.5
Massachusetts 2 3. 25000 3,185 5,390 5,636 6,265 6,757 7,524 8,345 9,415 12.8 10,053 6.8 10,229 1.8 11,293 10.4 11,687 3.5 11,796 0.9 11,947 1.3 11,832 -1.0
Michigan 2 3.. 26000 15,124 17,755 20,742 23,879 27,612 31,639 34,267 36,423 6.3 39,113 7.4 39,318 0.5 40,631 3.3 41,112 1.2 42,349 3.0 44,771 5.7 45,879 2.5
Minnesota .. 27000 2,001 2,343 2,462 2,546 2,799 3,103 3,176 3,472 9.3 3,822 10.1 4,200 9.9 4,575 8.9 4,846 5.9 5,158 6.4 5,326 3.3 5,572 4.6
Mississippi 28000 3,902 6,392 6,747 6,880 7,384 7,911 8,375 8,904 6.3 8,905 0.0 9,907 11.3 10,930 10.3 12,684 16.0 13,859 9.3 14,296 3.2 16,678 16.7
Missouri . 29000 5,726 9,915 10,309 11,146 12,176 13,921 14,943 15,897 6.4 16,195 1.9 16,178 -0.1 17,898 10.6 19,134 6.9 22,003 15.0 23,998 9.1 24,974 4.1
Montana 30000 739 1,129 1,111 1,187 1,272 1,328 1,425 1,478 3.7 1,548 4.7 1,541 -0.5 1,764 14.5 1,999 13.3 2,230 11.6 2,517 12.9 2,734 8.6
Nebraska 31000 1,446 1,814 1,953 2,086 2,156 2,393 2,403 2,526 5.1 2,514 -0.5 2,518 0.2 2,711 7.7 3,074 13.4 3,287 6.9 3,402 3.5 3,676 8.1
Nevada 32000 1,839 3,771 4,367 4,434 4,881 5,112 5,322 5,823 9.4 6,049 3.9 6,412 6.0 6,993 9.1 7,713 10.3 8,325 7.9 9,024 8.4 9,651 6.9
New Hampshire 33000 326 683 782 867 1,019 1,166 1,342 1,533 14.2 1,777 15.9 1,775 -0.1 2,021 13.9 2,015 -0.3 2,062 2.3 2,164 4.9 2,169 0.2
New Jersey 34000 5,884 11,335 12,020 15,548 16,936 19,439 21,128 23,483 11.1 22,653 -3.5 23,831 5.2 24,632 3.4 27,066 9.9 27,490 1.6 28,361 3.2 31,121 9.7
New Mexico 35000 1,279 2,313 2,416 2,710 2,825 3,158 3,187 3,119 -2.1 3,271 4.9 3,498 6.9 3,712 6.1 4,078 9.9 4,724 15.8 4,688 -0.8 4,985 6.3
New York. 36000 21,815 34,712 38,449 40,842 44,560 51,232 54,895 57,862 5.4 61,736 6.7 64,569 4.6 66,750 3.4 68,486 2.6 69,709 1.8 69,108 -0.9 72,638 5.1
North Carolina 37000 15,513 17,344 17,698 17,218 17,078 17,454 18,411 18,903 2.7 20,454 8.2 21,892 7.0 23,648 8.0 29,253 23.7 30,647 4.8 31,612 3.1 31,811 0.6
North Dakota 38000 253 422 421 430 466 451 483 492 1.9 477 -3.0 498 4.4 536 7.6 608 13.4 722 18.8 797 10.4 915 14.8
Ohio . 39000 13,489 20,864 22,463 24,220 26,462 30,538 31,822 35,744 12.3 38,378 7.4 40,641 5.9 41,908 3.1 44,663 6.6 46,174 3.4 48,016 4.0 48,450 0.9
Oklahoma 3 40000 4,796 8,330 9,596 9,639 10,448 11,608 12,285 13,340 8.6 14,821 11.1 16,409 10.7 16,631 1.4 18,151 9.1 19,593 7.9 20,542 4.8 20,892 1.7
Oregon 41000 3,177 4,454 4,770 5,482 5,991 6,156 6,492 6,732 3.7 6,583 -2.2 6,557 -0.4 6,936 5.8 7,886 13.7 8,661 9.8 7,999 -7.6 8,927 11.6
Pennsylvania. 42000 8,171 14,227 15,201 16,267 17,900 20,469 22,290 23,388 4.9 24,974 6.8 26,050 4.3 28,302 8.6 32,416 14.5 34,537 6.5 34,964 1.2 36,377 4.0
Rhode Island 1 44000 813 1,307 1,358 1,428 1,906 2,479 2,392 2,771 15.8 2,775 0.1 2,783 0.3 2,919 4.9 2,902 -0.6 3,271 12.7 3,371 3.1 3,445 2.2
South Carolina 45000 7,862 10,510 11,676 12,664 13,888 15,720 17,319 18,269 5.5 18,643 2.0 18,704 0.3 18,999 1.6 19,611 3.2 20,446 4.3 21,173 3.6 22,115 4.4
South Dakota 46000 635 1,047 1,164 1,133 1,020 1,256 1,341 1,374 2.5 1,487 8.2 1,553 4.4 1,708 10.0 1,871 9.5 2,063 10.3 2,242 8.7 2,435 8.6
Tennessee 47000 7,022 7,127 7,591 7,624 7,720 10,630 10,388 11,474 10.5 11,849 3.3 12,824 8.2 14,401 12.3 15,206 5.6 15,626 2.8 16,659 6.6 17,738 6.5
Texas 48000 29,892 37,532 38,534 38,821 40,437 44,022 50,042 51,677 3.3 60,467 17.0 92,013 52.2 118,195 28.5 127,766 8.1 132,383 3.6 140,351 6.0 144,510 3.0
Utah 49000 932 1,633 1,845 1,874 1,961 2,394 2,496 2,625 5.2 2,699 2.8 2,888 7.0 3,045 5.4 3,471 14.0 4,002 15.3 4,301 7.5 4,391 2.1
Vermont 1 50000 480 677 697 759 820 905 1,049 1,118 6.6 1,254 12.2 1,223 -2.5 1,301 6.4 1,279 -1.7 1,119 -12.5 1,270 13.5 1,426 12.3
Virginia 51000 8,920 12,073 12,930 13,321 14,184 16,477 17,593 19,829 12.7 21,199 6.9 22,850 7.8 26,968 18.0 27,415 1.7 27,655 0.9 28,385 2.6 28,560 0.6
Washington 53000 4,399 6,909 6,603 6,131 5,816 6,928 7,995 9,156 14.5 9,959 8.8 10,419 4.6 10,833 4.0 11,608 7.2 12,527 7.9 13,214 5.5 14,161 7.2
West Virginia 54000 1,257 1,725 1,482 1,461 1,455 1,536 1,565 1,502 -4.0 1,674 11.5 1,805 7.8 2,332 29.2 2,512 7.7 2,749 9.4 3,148 14.5 3,478 10.5
Wisconsin 55000 3,980 5,442 5,697 6,097 6,353 6,788 7,465 7,854 5.2 8,191 4.3 8,781 7.2 10,022 14.1 11,199 11.7 12,991 16.0 16,277 25.3 18,451 13.4
Wyoming 56000 534 758 855 916 945 1,026 1,110 1,099 -1.0 1,063 -3.3 1,129 6.2 1,217 7.8 1,395 14.6 1,499 7.5 1,549 3.3 1,571 1.4





1 Includes both jail and prison inmates (State has combined jail and prison system).
2 Numbers are custodial, not jurisdictional counts.
3 Jurisdiction counts exclude prisoners held in jail because crowding. 4 Data for 1996 and 1997 are not applicable.

Source: U.S. Bureau of Justice Statistics, Prisoners in 1998, Series NCJ 175687; and earlier reports.

http://www.ojp.usdoj.gov/bjs/correct.htm * Correctional Populations in the United States

Survey methodology, definitions of terms, and jurisdictional explanatory notes

Note: The following information has been excerpted from U.S. Department of Justice, Bureau of Justice Statistics, Correctional Populations in the United States, 1995, NCJ-163916 (Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Justice, 1997); Prisoners in 1997, Bulletin NCJ-170014 (Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Justice, August 1998), pp. 13-15; and Probation and Parole Populations 1997, Press Release NCJ-172216 (Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Justice, August 1998), p. 6. Non-substantive editorial adaptations have been made.

Survey methodology for prisoner data

The Bureau of Justice Statistics (BJS), with the U.S. Bureau of the Census as its collection agent, obtains yearend and midyear counts of prisoners from departments of correction in each of the 50 States, the District of Columbia, and the Federal Bureau of Prisons through the National Prisoner Statistics (NPS) program. In an effort to collect comparable data from all jurisdictions, NPS distinguishes prisoners in custody from those under jurisdiction. To have custody of a prisoner, a State must hold that person in one of its facilities. To have jurisdiction means that a State has legal authority over the prisoner. Prisoners under a State's jurisdiction may be in the custody of a local jail, another State's prison, or other correctional facility. Some States are unable to provide both custody and jurisdiction counts. Excluded from NPS counts are persons confined in locally administered confinement facilities who are under the jurisdiction of local authorities. NPS counts include all inmates in State-operated facilities in Alaska, Connecticut, Delaware, Hawaii, Rhode Island, and Vermont, which have combined jail-prison systems.

In each jurisdiction, the questionnaire was completed by a central agency reporting for institutions within the correctional system. This procedure was also used by the Federal Bureau of Prisons in supplying data on Federal institutions. Because the information was derived from a complete enumeration rather than a survey, the statistical data are not affected by sampling error. Response errors were held to a minimum by means of a systematic telephone followup and, where necessary, other control procedures. Thus, the yearend counts are generally considered reliable. Because of the absence of standardized administrative and record keeping practices from State to State, the data for admissions and releases are not always entirely comparable across jurisdictions.

Many States revise the yearend number reported for the previous year. Those revisions are made in the total, not the detail. For example, the number of blacks, whites, and members of other races for 1995 were not changed by a State in 1996 to equal its revised 1995 total.

* National Prisoner Statistics category definitions

Jurisdiction population, Dec. 31-- Includes all inmates under jurisdiction of State correctional authorities on Dec. 31 regardless of location. Does not include other jurisdictions' inmates (for example, inmates from other States, pretrial detainees) merely housed in prisons.

Custody population, Dec. 31-- Includes all inmates in the State's custody, that is, housed in State correctional facilities on Dec. 31. Does not include State inmates housed outside State prison facilities; does include other jurisdictions' inmates (for example, inmates from other States, the courts, local jails) housed in the State's facilities.

Overcrowding, Dec. 31--Includes all State prison inmates housed in local jails on Dec. 31 and as a direct result of State prison overcrowding. Does not include State prison inmates held in local jails for other reasons (for example, work release, court appearance, etc.).

Admissions

New court commitments--Includes all inmates who were admitted with new sentences, that is, these inmates were not readmitted for any sentences for which they had already served some prison time. This category includes probation violators entering prison for the first time on the probated offenses. Does not include parole violators with new sentences.

Parole violators with new sentences--Includes all parolees returned with new sentences.

Other conditional release violators with new sentences--Includes all individuals on conditional release (other than parole) who are returned with new sentences, for example, returns from supervised mandatory release, from shock probation, etc.

Parole violators only, no new sentences--Includes all parolees returned only for formal revocations of parole that were not accompanied by new sentences. If the parole was not formally revoked, that is, the parolee was held only temporarily pending a hearing, no admission occurred for NPS purposes.

Other conditional release violators only, no new sentences--Same as above, substituting conditional release violator for parole violator.

Transfers from other jurisdictions--Includes all inmates transferred to a State's jurisdiction to continue sentences already in force. Does not include admissions if State does not acquire jurisdiction. Does not include movements from prison to prison within State.

Absent without leave (AWOL) returns, with or without sentences--Includes all returns from AWOL, that is, failures to return from authorized temporary absences such as work furlough, study release, mercy furlough, or other authorized temporary absence.

Escapee returns, with or without new sentences--Includes all returns from escape, that is, unlawful departures from a State correctional facility or from the custody of State correctional personnel.

Returns from appeal/bond--Includes all inmates reinstated to correctional jurisdiction from long-term jurisdictional absences on appeal or bond. Does not include returns from short-term movements (less than 30 days) to court (that is, where the State retains jurisdiction).

Other admissions--Includes all other admissions not covered by the above categories.

Releases

Unconditional--An unconditional release occurs only if the released inmate cannot be imprisoned for any sentence for which he/she was in prison.

Expirations of sentence--Includes all inmates whose maximum court sentences minus credits have been served.

Commutations--Includes all inmates whose maximum sentences have been changed (lowered) to time served to allow immediate unconditional release.

Other unconditional releases--Includes all other unconditional releases not covered by the above categories.

Conditional--A conditional release occurs if the released inmate, upon violating the conditions of release, can be imprisoned again for any of the sentences for which he/she was in prison.

Probations--Includes all inmates who have been placed under probation supervision and conditionally released; includes all shock probation (split sentence) releases.

Supervised mandatory releases--Includes all inmates who must, by law, be conditionally released. This type of release may also be called mandatory conditional release.

Paroles--Includes all inmates conditionally released to parole.

Other conditional releases--Includes all other conditional releases not covered by the above categories.

Death:

Executions--Self-explanatory.

Acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS)--The immediate cause of death in AIDS mortalities may be Pneumocystis Carinii Pneumonia, Kaposi's Sarcoma, or other diseases related to HIV infection.

Illness/natural causes--Self-explanatory. AIDS-related deaths not included in this category.

Suicides--Self-explanatory.

Accidental injury to self--Includes all inmates who accidentally cause their own deaths (for example, a fall from a ladder, mishandling electrical equipment).

Death caused by another person--Includes all inmates whose deaths were caused accidentally or intentionally by another inmate or prison personnel.

Other deaths--Includes all other deaths not covered by the above categories.

Other releases:

Absent without leave (AWOL)--Includes all failures to return from an authorized temporary absence such as work furlough, study release, mercy furlough, or other authorized temporary absence.

Escapes from confinement--Includes all unlawful departures from a State correctional facility or from the custody of State correctional personnel.

Transfers to other jurisdictions--Includes all inmates who were transferred from one State's jurisdiction to another to continue sentences already in force. Does not include the release if State does not relinquish jurisdiction. Does not include movements from prison to prison within State.

Releases to appeal/bond--Includes all inmates released from correctional jurisdiction to long-term jurisdictional absences on appeal or bond. Does not include short-term movements (less than 30 days) to court (that is, where the State correctional system retains jurisdiction).

Other releases--Includes all other releases not covered by the above categories.

Race

Classification by race often depends on the reporting program and the State. A few States reported two categories: white and nonwhite. A few others categorized Hispanic offenders as belonging to "Other race." The number of persons with certain racial backgrounds were sometimes estimated.

White--A person having origins in any of the original peoples of Europe, North Africa, or the Middle East.

Black--A person having origins in any of the black racial groups of Africa.

American Indian or Alaska Native--A person having origins in any of the original peoples of North America, who maintains cultural identification through tribal affiliation or community recognition.

Asian or Pacific Islander--A person having origins in any of the original peoples of the Far East, Southeast Asia, the Indian Subcontinent, or the Pacific Islands. This area includes, for example, China, India, Japan, Korea, the Philippine Islands, and Samoa.

Other--Any other race not covered by the above categories.

Not known--Any inmate whose racial origin is unknown.

Ethnic origin

A person of Hispanic origin may be of any race; however, a few States treat the ethnic category as a racial one. Reporting officials usually rely on self-definition, but some States classify according to surname.

Hispanic--A person of Mexican, Puerto Rican, Cuban, Central or South American, or other Spanish culture or origin, regardless of race.

Not Hispanic--A person not covered by the above category.

Not known--Any inmate whose ethnic origin is unknown. *



https://allcountries.org/uscensus/371_prisoners_under_jurisdiction_of_state_and.html

These tables are based on figures supplied by the United States Census Bureau, U.S. Department of Commerce and are subject to revision by the Census Bureau.

Copyright © 2006 Photius Coutsoukis and Information Technology Associates, all rights reserved.