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366. Child Abuse and Neglect Cases Reported and Investigated

[Based on reports alleging child abuse and neglect that were referred for investigation by the respective child protective services agency in each State. The reporting period may be either calendar or fiscal year. The majority of states provide duplicated counts. Excludes Armed Forces. For definitions, see below table]

 
1995 1996 1997 1998
POST 5-DIGIT 2-DIGIT Reports Reports
OFFICE FIPS FIPS Investi- Investi-
ABBREV CODE CODE Population Number of gation Population Number of gation Population Number of Number of Population Number of Number of
State IATION under 18 Number children disposition, under 18 Number children disposition, under 18 Number children child under 18 Number children child
and years old of subject number of years old of subject number of years old of subject victims 2 years old of subject victims 2
outlying area reports 1 of a children reports 1 of a children reports of an reports of an
report substan- report substan- investi- investi-
tiated 2 tiated 2 gation 1 gation 1
 
Total (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) 70,352,415 2,050,801 3,032,004 969,018 70,874,587 (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA)
 
    United States. US 00000 00 68,739,952 1,988,341 2,948,240 1,000,502 69,022,127 2,025,549 3,006,752 968,789 69,527,944 2,046,105 2,857,565 965,623 69,872,059 1,851,267 2,972,862 903,395
 
Alabama.. AL 01000 01 1,080,145 25,704 38,559 18,120 1,078,097 26,384 39,361 18,640 1,071,708 25,626 40,773 19,489 1,084,135 24,413 35,912 16,668
Alaska AK 02000 02 189,253 3 9,898 9,898 8,142 186,359 10,100 10,100 7,544 188,329 11,616 11,616 9,017 192,261 11,202 11,326 7,138
Arizona.. AZ 04000 04 1,193,270 26,180 43,762 25,154 1,228,880 28,418 46,716 20,633 1,278,063 38,229 52,886 24,005 1,263,404 34,930 60,610 8,983
Arkansas. AR 05000 05 649,521 17,612 28,563 8,169 658,567 20,121 38,211 8,571 662,692 21,671 30,441 5,109 653,721 20,511 29,572 8,578
California.. CA 06000 06 8,793,616 364,432 458,262 166,418 8,888,761 370,521 463,072 182,160 8,951,653 380,528 480,443 174,170 8,911,372 122,622 413,372 157,683
Colorado. CO 08000 08 981,200 32,382 52,517 7,602 994,353 30,960 49,867 6,906 1,015,529 30,647 7,123 7,123 1,040,580 28,573 39,141 7,010
Connecticut. CT 09000 09 797,733 24,669 38,701 23,762 789,192 33,152 49,344 19,906 792,161 29,676 37,031 18,178 790,715 31,221 40,905 16,923
Delaware. DE 10000 10 178,826 5,448 9,659 2,300 176,738 5,335 9,751 2,337 177,411 6,659 9,657 4,416 179,071 6,473 9,693 2,894
District of Columbia. DC 11000 11 114,652 5,185 12,341 5,916 109,535 5,022 12,018 5,867 107,204 4,656 11,518 5,341 102,959 4,077 9,862 4,916
Florida.. FL 12000 12 3,371,328 115,108 170,727 77,976 3,409,379 124,354 184,442 74,587 3,471,316 124,810 184,197 79,785 3,539,932 125,359 186,967 82,119
Georgia.. GA 13000 13 1,923,594 57,118 95,925 57,250 1,953,514 51,981 87,006 48,572 1,987,811 48,770 79,848 45,504 2,022,351 47,007 74,180 24,567
Hawaii.. HI 15000 15 309,262 3 5,601 5,601 2,635 304,278 5,384 5,384 2,555 302,592 4,218 4,221 2,559 298,327 2,129 3,568 2,185
Idaho. ID 16000 16 347,924 13,406 35,968 10,743 347,401 11,987 32,496 8,816 351,352 12,144 32,522 8,283 351,158 10,100 26,682 7,936
Illinois. IL 17000 17 3,125,894 73,904 132,570 49,217 3,152,967 70,222 124,129 43,973 3,174,223 66,613 115,344 38,936 3,187,332 64,357 110,658 35,657
Indiana.. IN 18000 18 1,487,359 43,429 67,390 22,493 1,492,553 43,744 66,097 22,861 1,497,455 31,483 47,170 15,624 1,517,366 102,155 102,155 18,962
Iowa.. IA 19000 19 724,511 22,131 32,801 9,967 723,041 22,131 32,801 9,967 725,325 (NA) (NA) (NA) 722,139 19,412 28,072 7,311
Kansas KS 20000 20 692,761 3 30,552 30,552 3,264 685,725 30,552 30,552 3,264 687,931 31,451 47,096 18,592 697,452 18,480 26,751 5,312
Kentucky. KY 21000 21 972,708 40,470 63,313 28,630 965,906 39,241 60,896 27,293 961,202 45,001 45,001 20,783 988,293 63,439 63,439 22,875
Louisiana LA 22000 22 1,239,214 27,587 45,326 14,194 1,211,062 27,950 45,981 14,911 1,190,878 27,908 46,287 14,825 1,191,412 27,117 45,318 13,773
Maine. ME 23000 23 304,895 4,106 8,291 4,628 298,694 4,470 9,616 4,656 297,266 4,591 10,041 3,746 291,585 4,121 9,030 3,579
Maryland. MD 24000 24 1,271,966 26,114 42,352 (NA) 1,266,463 29,900 48,160 (NA) 1,268,552 30,330 48,528 14,198 1,287,190 31,091 55,964 14,234
Massachusetts.. MA 25000 25 1,431,854 33,522 56,175 25,375 1,438,507 35,505 60,199 27,219 1,451,374 37,722 58,743 29,815 1,457,703 37,091 52,899 27,559
Michigan. MI 26000 26 2,519,455 57,914 139,289 21,165 2,515,450 58,655 142,700 21,073 2,504,757 59,829 147,628 20,654 2,551,615 62,659 156,425 22,744
Minnesota MN 27000 27 1,245,492 16,991 26,213 10,142 1,241,332 16,685 25,435 10,200 1,250,685 17,358 26,252 10,777 1,259,447 16,197 24,844 10,572
Mississippi. MS 28000 28 761,909 16,786 27,224 5,588 755,930 18,116 29,179 (NA) 752,998 17,869 (NA) (NA) 756,875 18,002 32,404 6,079
Missouri. MO 29000 29 1,381,552 52,931 85,927 17,764 1,393,670 52,548 83,875 23,522 1,406,425 51,151 80,185 15,845 1,406,616 48,119 75,178 12,556
Montana.. MT 30000 30 236,134 8,905 13,528 4,194 230,608 8,943 17,732 3,664 229,530 10,885 21,568 3,611 224,403 9,676 19,004 3,292
Nebraska. NE 31000 31 443,297 7,858 16,109 3,510 441,597 8,346 16,749 3,612 444,681 8,140 16,654 4,054 445,642 8,272 14,641 4,219
Nevada NV 32000 32 398,586 12,716 20,623 7,791 418,702 13,558 21,838 8,135 442,856 14,685 (NA) (NA) 467,107 13,705 23,229 8,014
New Hampshire.. NH 33000 33 294,969 5,639 7,778 1,059 293,671 6,160 8,337 1,063 296,090 6,429 9,015 1,092 298,610 6,391 8,974 1,159
New Jersey.. NJ 34000 34 1,963,523 3 63,684 63,684 9,279 1,976,575 67,817 67,817 10,537 1,987,124 70,024 70,024 10,982 1,990,439 75,988 75,988 9,851
New Mexico.. NM 35000 35 500,099 3 28,034 28,034 8,842 497,303 28,661 28,661 8,845 499,322 18,224 23,454 8,213 504,210 12,781 13,403 4,241
New York. NY 36000 36 4,536,862 128,896 211,445 57,699 4,546,985 141,376 236,241 70,602 4,560,031 141,482 234,205 72,000 4,502,611 142,174 240,655 83,537
North Carolina. NC 37000 37 1,799,119 59,968 98,690 30,935 1,832,666 60,687 102,168 33,133 1,873,403 104,950 104,950 33,347 1,919,774 125,862 125,862 37,357
North Dakota ND 38000 38 170,445 4,642 7,673 3,340 166,558 4,341 7,292 270 165,208 4,219 6,870 (NA) 162,611 4,221 7,098 (NA)
Ohio.. OH 39000 39 2,859,848 95,001 156,975 58,416 2,840,852 95,514 154,202 56,336 2,838,641 (NA) (NA) (NA) 2,844,005 84,657 135,628 58,070
Oklahoma. OK 40000 40 878,039 3 39,831 39,831 11,700 874,795 40,916 40,916 11,646 878,305 33,375 51,001 13,800 879,367 34,790 60,340 16,584
Oregon OR 41000 41 797,040 26,765 43,407 8,991 802,670 24,515 39,486 9,238 810,699 17,187 27,499 9,742 825,170 17,300 27,680 10,147
Pennsylvania.. PA 42000 42 2,909,302 3 24,109 24,109 6,891 2,872,488 23,666 23,666 6,183 2,864,082 22,688 23,188 5,691 2,859,828 22,589 22,589 5,392
Rhode Island RI 44000 44 237,611 8,951 14,492 4,437 234,029 8,699 14,160 4,181 233,654 8,486 10,181 3,481 237,917 8,117 9,863 3,448
South Carolina. SC 45000 45 944,384 22,756 43,503 11,439 950,376 20,389 39,063 8,917 955,641 20,573 39,333 8,684 959,296 20,000 38,238 8,432
South Dakota. SD 46000 46 206,436 3 8,648 9,063 2,526 200,668 9,051 9,051 2,617 197,338 5,441 4,874 2,491 200,937 5,313 5,313 2,647
Tennessee.. TN 47000 47 1,310,297 3 36,286 36,286 12,166 1,317,198 34,293 34,293 11,439 1,324,789 32,383 32,383 10,803 1,331,402 32,286 32,286 9,930
Texas. TX 48000 48 5,400,417 103,029 158,352 46,768 5,475,335 99,780 151,261 44,704 5,577,135 109,598 162,974 39,638 5,629,200 121,183 172,718 39,925
Utah.. UT 49000 49 674,618 16,114 26,447 8,848 681,580 18,858 24,857 8,538 688,077 17,044 27,219 9,356 701,300 16,931 27,222 7,990
Vermont.. VT 50000 50 146,760 2,197 2,618 1,122 145,431 2,259 2,561 1,221 145,519 2,223 2,309 1,041 141,347 1,883 1,973 887
Virginia. VA 51000 51 1,612,527 35,992 55,553 10,416 1,628,326 34,630 53,271 10,280 1,644,386 33,273 51,227 10,025 1,644,678 32,902 49,026 9,766
Washington.. WA 53000 53 1,418,404 42,109 47,929 20,264 1,433,029 33,913 47,631 20,033 1,454,654 35,838 38,200 12,014 1,472,490 32,880 47,281 12,926
West Virginia.. WV 54000 54 421,868 12,370 19,544 (NA) 419,674 16,439 26,478 (NA) 411,746 17,579 (NA) (NA) 404,254 16,350 64,483 7,793
Wisconsin. WI 55000 55 1,353,205 3 44,661 44,661 17,118 1,341,694 45,479 45,479 16,667 1,346,376 43,406 43,406 14,625 1,351,044 22,232 22,232 8,168
Wyoming.. WY 56000 56 136,268 (NA) (NA) 1,508 132,963 3,821 6,154 895 131,765 2,565 (NA) (NA) 129,406 1,927 2,209 807
 
Guam 67,788 (NA) (NA) (NA) 69,352 (NA) (NA) (NA) 70,884 (NA) (NA) (NA)
Puerto Rico 1,198,353 24,845 24,845 (NA) 1,212,347 (NA) (NA) (NA) 1,222,818 (NA) (NA) (NA)
Virgin Islands 64,147 407 407 229 64,944 (NA) (NA) (NA) 65,717 (NA) (NA) (NA)


| NA Not available.


1 The number of Children Subject of An Investigation is calculated from the total number of children by Disposition, and is a national estimate for the 50 States and the District of Columbia based on submissions from reporting States.
2 Victims are defined as children subject of a substantiated or indicated maltreatment. In 1998, Ohio included "In Need of Services," and North Dakota did not use these dispositions.
3 Includes estimates for States that did not report.

Source: U.S. Deparment of Health and Human Services, National Center on Child Abuse and Neglect, National Child Abuse and Neglect Data System, Working Paper 2, 1991 Summary Data Component, May 1993. Child Maltreatment - 1992, May 1994; and Child Maltreatment -1993, April 1995; Child Maltreatment -- 1994, May 1995; and Child Maltreatment -- 1995. Child Maltreatment 1996: Reports From the States to the National Child Abuse and Neglect System, April 1998. Child Maltreatment 1997: Reports From the States to the National Child Abuse and Neglect System, April 1999. Child Maltreatment 1998: Reports From the States to the National Child Abuse and Neglect System, April 2000.

http://www.calib.com/nccanch/

* WHAT IS CHILD MALTREATMENT?

Child abuse and neglect are defined in both Federal and State legislation. The Federal legislation provides a foundation for States by identifying a minimum set of acts or behaviors that characterize maltreatment. This legislation also defines what acts are considered physical abuse, neglect, and sexual abuse.

HOW DO WE DEFINE CHILD ABUSE AND NEGLECT?

The Child Abuse Prevention and Treatment Act (CAPTA), as amended and reauthorized in October 1996 (Public Law 104-235, Section 111; 42 U.S.C. 5106g), defines child abuse and neglect as, at a minimum, any recent act or failure to act:

Resulting in imminent risk of serious harm, death, serious physical or emotional harm, sexual abuse, or exploitation

Of a child (a person under the age of 18, unless the child protection law of the State in which the child resides specifies a younger age for cases not involving sexual abuse)

By a parent or caretaker (including any employee of a residential facility or any staff person providing out-of-home care) who is responsible for the child's welfare.

CAPTA defines sexual abuse as:

Employment, use, persuasion, inducement, enticement, or coercion of any child to engage in, or assist any other person to engage in, any sexually explicit conduct or any simulation of such conduct for the purpose of producing any visual depiction of such conduct; or

rape, and in cases of caretaker or inter-familial relationships, statutory rape, molestation, prostitution, or other form of sexual exploitation of children, or incest with children.

With the reauthorization of CAPTA, withholding of medically indicated treatment has been defined as failure to respond to an infant's life-threatening conditions by denial of treatment (including appropriate nutrition, hydration, and medication) that would most likely be effective in ameliorating or correcting all life-threatening conditions. This definition does not refer to situations where treatment of an infant, in the treating physician's reasonable medical judgment, would prolong dying, be ineffective in ameliorating or correcting all the infant's life-threatening conditions, or be futile in helping the infant to survive. In addition, this definition does not include situations where the infant is chronically or irreversibly comatose.

Each State is responsible for providing definitions of child abuse and neglect within the civil and criminal context. Civil laws, or statutes, describe the circumstances and conditions that obligate mandated reporters to report known or suspected cases of abuse, and they provide definitions necessary for juvenile/family courts to take custody of a child alleged to have been maltreated. Criminal statutes specify the forms of maltreatment that are criminally punishable. (The State Statutes Desk at the National Clearinghouse on Child Abuse and Neglect Information offers a comprehensive resource summarizing over 30 civil and criminal State statutes pertaining to child maltreatment.) * WHAT ARE THE MAIN TYPES OF MALTREATMENT?

There are four major types of child maltreatment: physical abuse, child neglect, sexual abuse, and emotional abuse.

Physical Abuse

Physical abuse is the infliction of physical injury as a result of punching, beating, kicking, biting, burning, shaking, or otherwise harming a child. The parent or caretaker may not have intended to hurt the child, rather the injury may have resulted from over-discipline or physical punishment.

Child Neglect

Child neglect is characterized by failure to provide for the child's basic needs. Neglect can be physical, educational, or emotional. Physical neglect includes refusal of or delay in seeking health care, abandonment, expulsion from the home or refusal to allow a runaway to return home, and inadequate supervision. Educational neglect includes the allowance of chronic truancy, failure to enroll a child of mandatory school age in school, and failure to attend to a special educational need. Emotional neglect includes such actions as marked inattention to the child's needs for affection, refusal of or failure to provide needed psychological care, spouse abuse in the child's presence, and permission of drug or alcohol use by the child. The assessment of child neglect requires consideration of cultural values and standards of care as well as recognition that the failure to provide the necessities of life may be related to poverty.

Sexual Abuse

Sexual abuse includes fondling a child's genitals, intercourse, incest, rape, sodomy, exhibitionism, and commercial exploitation through prostitution or the production of pornographic materials. Many experts believe that sexual abuse is the most under-reported form of child maltreatment because of the secrecy or "conspiracy of silence" that so often characterizes these cases.

Emotional Abuse (Psychological/Verbal Abuse/Mental Injury)

Emotional abuse includes acts or omissions by the parents or other caregivers that have caused, or could cause, serious behavioral, cognitive, emotional, or mental disorders. In some cases of emotional abuse, the acts of parents or other caregivers alone, without any harm evident in the child's behavior or condition, are sufficient to warrant child protective services (CPS) intervention. For example, the parents/caregivers may use extreme or bizarre forms of punishment, such as confinement of a child in a dark closet. Less severe acts, such as habitual scapegoating, belittling, or rejecting treatment, are often difficult to prove and, therefore, CPS may not be able to intervene without evidence of harm to the child.

Although any of the forms of child maltreatment may be found separately, they often occur in combination. Emotional abuse is almost always present when other forms are identified.

*



https://allcountries.org/uscensus/366_child_abuse_and_neglect_cases_reported.html

These tables are based on figures supplied by the United States Census Bureau, U.S. Department of Commerce and are subject to revision by the Census Bureau.

Copyright © 2006 Photius Coutsoukis and Information Technology Associates, all rights reserved.