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NA Not available.
1 Represents actions sucha s requiring the violator to comply with Federal environmental standards, suspending the violator's permit to discharge, and/or assessing a penalty for noncompliance.
2 Represents filing by U.S. attorneys in U.S. district court only. Statistics describing administrative actions for wildlife and conservation offenses were not available.
3 Criminal actions include only those offenses classified as felonies or Class A misdemeanors.
4 Includes Endangered Species Act, Bald and Golden Eagle Protection Act, Migratory Bird Treaty Act, and Lacey Act.
Source: U.S. Bureau of Justice Statistics, Federal Enforcement of Environmental Laws, 1997, series NCJ 175686, November 1999.
http://www.ojp.usdoj.gov/bjs/stssent.htm * Numerous Federal laws have been enacted to protect the environment and wildlife. In this report, this collection of environmental laws comprises (1) environmental protection laws that protect the safety and well-being of communities from excessive and unnecessary emission of environmental pollutants and (2) wildlife laws that protect endangered or threatened species as well as migratory birds.
Federal Environmental and Wildlife Protection Acts
Environmental protection acts
Clean Air Act -- to prevent the deterioration of air quality. (42 U.S.C. Sec.s 7401-7491)
Clear Water Act -- to regulate the sources of water pollution. (33 U.S.C. Sec.s 1251-1376)
Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and
Liability (CERCLA) -- to address the problem of abandoned hazardous waste sites. (42 U.S.C. Sec.s 9601-9675)
Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) -- to protect human health and the environment from dangers associated with waste management. (42 U.S.C. Sec.s 6901-6992)
Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA)--TO REGULATE CHEMICAL substances in which the public or environment may become exposed. (15 U.S.C. Sec.s 2601-2671)
Act to Prevent Pollution by Ships (APPS)--TO ADDRESS THE DISCHARGE of harmful substances into the oceans. (33 U.S.C. Sec.s 1901-1950)
Emergency Planning and Community Right to Know Act (EPCRA) -- to protect the environment from pollu- tion. (42 U.S.C. Sec.s 11001-11050)
Endangered Species Act (ESA) -- to conserve the various species of fish, wildlife, and plants facing extinc- tion. (16 U.S.C. Sec.s 1531(b))
Bald and Golden Eagle Protection Act (BGEPA)--TO PROVIDE A PROGRAM FOR the conservation of bald and golden eagles. (16 U.S.C. Sec.s 668)
Migratory Bird Treaty Act (MBTA) -- to protect migratory birds during their nesting season. (16 U.S.C. Sec.s 707)
Lacey Act -- to control the trade in of exotic fish, wildlife, and plants into the United States. (16 U.S.C. Sec.s 3372)
These tables are based on figures supplied by the United States Census Bureau, U.S. Department of Commerce and are subject to revision by the Census Bureau.
Copyright © 2006 Photius Coutsoukis and Information Technology Associates, all rights reserved.