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361. Federal Environmental Enforcement Actions Initiated by Type of Violation and Enforcement Action

[See below table for Federal laws and statutes covered by actions]

 
Total Administrative actions1 Civil 2 Criminal 3
          Type of violation
1994 1995 1996 1997 1994 1995 1996 1997 1994 1995 1996 1997 1994 1995 1996 1997
 
    Total actions..................................................... 4,096 3,722 2,902 4,129 3,544 2,969 2,171 3,427 209 207 220 207 343 546 511 446
 
Environmental protection............................................ (NA) (NA) (NA) 3,842 (NA) (NA) (NA) 3,427 199 200 211 204 127 234 203 211
  Clean Air Act.................................................... 499 303 338 457 435 232 242 391 45 35 56 35 19 36 40 31
  Clean Water Act.................................................. 1,973 1,936 1,167 1,812 1,841 1,774 998 1,642 80 74 72 62 52 88 97 108
  Resource Conservation and
   Recovery Act (RCRA).................................................. 206 192 336 505 115 92 238 423 13 25 21 82 31 34 37 59
  Comprehensive Environmental Response
   Compensation, and Liability (CERCLA)............................................... 288 320 259 391 264 280 234 305 60 66 61 23 11 15 4 4
  Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA)................................................ 340 #����! 191 191 333 187 178 185 (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) 6 6 12 6
  Other...................................................................... 574 454 292 486 556 404 281 481 1 (NA) 1 0 8 43 5 3
 
Wildlife 4.................................................................. (NA) (NA) (NA) 287 (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) 10 7 6 2 216 312 308 235


NA Not available.
1 Represents actions sucha s requiring the violator to comply with Federal environmental standards, suspending the violator's permit to discharge, and/or assessing a penalty for noncompliance.
2 Represents filing by U.S. attorneys in U.S. district court only. Statistics describing administrative actions for wildlife and conservation offenses were not available.
3 Criminal actions include only those offenses classified as felonies or Class A misdemeanors.
4 Includes Endangered Species Act, Bald and Golden Eagle Protection Act, Migratory Bird Treaty Act, and Lacey Act.

Source: U.S. Bureau of Justice Statistics, Federal Enforcement of Environmental Laws, 1997, series NCJ 175686, November 1999.

http://www.ojp.usdoj.gov/bjs/stssent.htm * Numerous Federal laws have been enacted to protect the environment and wildlife. In this report, this collection of environmental laws comprises (1) environmental protection laws that protect the safety and well-being of communities from excessive and unnecessary emission of environmental pollutants and (2) wildlife laws that protect endangered or threatened species as well as migratory birds.

Federal Environmental and Wildlife Protection Acts

Environmental protection acts

Clean Air Act -- to prevent the deterioration of air quality. (42 U.S.C. Sec.s 7401-7491)

Clear Water Act -- to regulate the sources of water pollution. (33 U.S.C. Sec.s 1251-1376)

Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and

Liability (CERCLA) -- to address the problem of abandoned hazardous waste sites. (42 U.S.C. Sec.s 9601-9675)

Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) -- to protect human health and the environment from dangers associated with waste management. (42 U.S.C. Sec.s 6901-6992)

Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA)--TO REGULATE CHEMICAL substances in which the public or environment may become exposed. (15 U.S.C. Sec.s 2601-2671)

Act to Prevent Pollution by Ships (APPS)--TO ADDRESS THE DISCHARGE of harmful substances into the oceans. (33 U.S.C. Sec.s 1901-1950)

Emergency Planning and Community Right to Know Act (EPCRA) -- to protect the environment from pollu- tion. (42 U.S.C. Sec.s 11001-11050)

Wildlife acts

Endangered Species Act (ESA) -- to conserve the various species of fish, wildlife, and plants facing extinc- tion. (16 U.S.C. Sec.s 1531(b))

Bald and Golden Eagle Protection Act (BGEPA)--TO PROVIDE A PROGRAM FOR the conservation of bald and golden eagles. (16 U.S.C. Sec.s 668)

Migratory Bird Treaty Act (MBTA) -- to protect migratory birds during their nesting season. (16 U.S.C. Sec.s 707)

Lacey Act -- to control the trade in of exotic fish, wildlife, and plants into the United States. (16 U.S.C. Sec.s 3372)

*



https://allcountries.org/uscensus/361_federal_environmental_enforcement_actions_initiated_by.html

These tables are based on figures supplied by the United States Census Bureau, U.S. Department of Commerce and are subject to revision by the Census Bureau.

Copyright © 2006 Photius Coutsoukis and Information Technology Associates, all rights reserved.