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346. Drug Use by Arrestees in Major U.S. Cities, by Sex and Type of Drug

[Percent testing positive. For 1993-1996, based on the DUF (Drug Use Forecasting) system; thereafter, based on the (ADAM) Arrestee Drug Abuse Monitoring Program; for methodology, see below table]

 
Resident 1993 1993 1994 1994 1995 1995 1996 1996 1997 1997 1998 1998
popula-
tion, Male FeMale Male FeMale Male FeMale Male FeMale Male FeMale Male FeMale
City 1998
Any Mari- Cocaine Heroin Any Mari- Cocaine Heroin Any Mari- Cocaine Heroin Any Mari- Cocaine Heroin Any Mari- Cocaine Heroin Any Mari- Cocaine Heroin Any Mari- Cocaine Heroin Any Mari- Cocaine Heroin Any Mari- Cocaine Heroin Any Mari- Cocaine Heroin Any Mari- Cocaine Heroin Any Mari- Cocaine Heroin
(1,000) drug /1 juana drug /1 juana drug /1 juana drug /1 juana drug /1 juana drug /1 juana drug /1 juana drug /1 juana drug /1 juana drug /1 juana drug /1 juana drug /1 juana
 
Albuquerque, NM. 419 (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) 64.8 35.9 38.7 8.2 73.1 24.0 59.1 15.4
Anchorage, AK 255 (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) 42.5 33.3 19.5 2.3 57.7 23.1 50.0 3.8
Atlanta, GA. 404 73 26 59 3 74 16 68 4 69 25 57 3 72 15 62 4 74 32 57 3 68 13 62 3 80 37 59 3 77 26 63 3 72 36 51 2 74 28 61 3 65.7 26.0 51.3 1.3 (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA)
Birmingham, AL. 253 68 28 51 4 55 12 41 4 69 28 50 4 63 17 50 3 73 36 49 2 57 12 48 3 70 44 43 4 59 22 39 6 67 43 39 5 67 25 49 5 67.1 39.2 41.2 3.7 74.3 17.6 56.8 17.6
Chicago, IL. 2,802 81 40 53 28 (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) 79 38 57 27 (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) 79 41 51 22 (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) 82 47 52 20 (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) 80 48 49 22 (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) 74.2 41.5 44.9 18.3 71.5 19.7 55.5 27.0
Cleveland, OH.. 496 64 23 48 4 77 13 69 4 66 28 48 3 82 16 74 5 65 29 42 5 71 11 63 6 67 37 41 3 70 22 52 6 64 46 27 4 57 39 22 4 65.2 36.8 36.8 6.0 58.1 27.0 40.5 1.4
Dallas, TX 1,076 62 28 45 4 61 19 43 10 57 33 35 3 63 23 46 7 60 37 31 5 58 21 44 5 63 44 32 5 58 27 36 10 63 44 32 4 53 28 34 5 63.4 43.1 29.0 2.3 48.9 24.2 29.5 4.8
Denver, CO. 499 64 36 41 4 66 24 47 6 67 39 40 4 68 22 51 5 66 33 44 5 66 21 52 6 71 42 44 5 69 27 53 5 71 42 40 4 69 32 50 6 68.8 41.3 39.6 4.2 68.7 29.9 49.9 3.4
Des Moines, IA.. 191 (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) 57.1 41.8 18.1 2.8 66.7 15.2 24.2 6.1
Detroit, MI.. 970 63 37 34 8 77 11 64 14 66 38 34 7 62 16 46 13 67 42 30 7 78 18 61 15 66 46 27 7 69 19 53 18 62 44 23 5 69 28 48 9 68.2 46.5 28.2 6.8 60.2 21.5 46.2 21.5
Fort Lauderdale, FL. 154 61 30 43 1 60 20 45 3 58 29 41 1 62 18 52 3 58 33 39 2 60 18 50 3 67 38 44 2 66 24 52 3 73 38 51 3 68 24 57 4 74.4 43.5 50.2 2.0 67.1 24.5 53.4 4.7
Houston, TX. 1,787 59 24 41 2 53 15 43 4 48 23 29 3 48 13 36 6 58 29 40 5 50 18 32 3 64 33 39 8 54 26 34 4 63 24 40 10 45 17 29 5 59.9 35.8 35.8 7.5 51.7 20.1 37.3 7.0
Indianapolis, IN. 741 61 42 32 4 58 25 36 4 69 39 47 3 69 22 57 5 64 38 39 2 72 24 54 7 74 51 42 3 72 31 52 3 63 44 31 3 67 30 45 3 66.8 45.1 34.2 1.8 67.1 31.2 43.2 4.5
Laredo, TX 176 (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) 57.3 39.3 37.1 11.2 33.3 13.3 33.3 0.0
Las Vegas, NV 404 (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) 56.8 25.8 24.2 2.6 70.3 21.6 35.1 13.5
Los Angeles, CA 3,598 66 23 49 9 77 15 59 15 66 20 48 10 72 12 53 12 62 23 44 7 68 14 49 10 64 30 44 6 74 20 49 12 59 27 38 6 70 18 49 11 64.4 27.3 42.7 5.6 71.0 21.8 44.7 8.8
Miami, FL.. 369 70 26 61 2 (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) 66 28 56 2 (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) 57 29 42 3 (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) 67 34 52 1 (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) 61 32 46 2 (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) 61.5 29.2 47.3 2.4 (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA)
Minneapolis, MN. 352 (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) 63.2 45.4 26.7 4.7 44.0 22.6 28.6 6.0
New Orleans, LA 466 62 25 48 5 47 14 37 5 63 29 47 5 32 7 25 2 66 32 47 7 50 16 37 4 67 40 46 7 35 13 26 3 67 38 46 11 40 12 32 3 67.3 38.3 46.0 12.9 50.5 22.1 38.7 3.4
New York, NY 2 7,420 78 21 66 20 83 19 70 23 82 24 68 19 90 15 81 30 83 28 68 20 84 16 71 19 78 38 56 17 83 19 69 27 79 32 58 19 81 25 62 20 76.9 38.7 47.1 16.2 82.1 23.4 67.0 21.8
Oklahoma City, OK.. 472 (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) 69.0 53.1 27.3 1.9 (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA)
Omaha, NE. 371 54 42 19 2 50 22 26 2 59 44 26 2 58 28 35 2 54 42 19 1 56 24 30 2 63 52 24 1 51 33 28 3 62 50 21 2 54 33 17 4 60.4 43.9 25.1 2.0 60.0 28.2 35.5 4.0
Philadelphia, PA.. 1,436 76 32 57 11 79 20 61 14 76 32 54 14 76 18 61 18 76 34 51 12 77 20 59 14 69 39 40 11 81 21 69 16 67 41 34 11 75 21 58 16 78.7 44.9 44.5 18.4 77.4 23.7 60.9 14.9
Phoenix, AZ 1,198 62 31 30 6 62 20 38 14 65 29 28 6 67 22 36 12 63 29 27 8 63 19 33 12 59 28 32 9 65 22 42 13 64 30 32 9 66 21 33 8 62.7 32.2 31.1 5.7 70.6 24.9 39.6 7.3
Portland, OR 504 63 30 33 11 74 17 47 19 65 27 32 12 74 19 43 21 65 29 30 15 68 16 40 18 66 35 34 13 74 26 46 26 71 38 37 14 78 19 45 27 71.5 36.9 29.2 15.5 74.3 23.2 36.7 25.1
Sacramento, CA.. 404 (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) 70.8 44.1 18.2 3.2 72.8 28.2 30.7 8.4
Salt Lake City, UT. 174 (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) 60.2 36.8 20.3 8.2 68.6 29.4 19.6 13.7
San Antonio, TX. 1,114 55 32 31 14 42 16 24 15 52 30 31 13 39 15 22 14 51 34 24 10 41 16 24 13 57 39 28 10 44 19 23 13 52 34 26 10 38 17 18 9 56.0 41.1 27.0 9.6 37.8 17.5 20.0 8.6
San Diego, CA 1,221 78 40 37 16 78 25 36 20 79 36 30 12 76 20 18 13 72 35 28 8 73 20 28 12 71 40 27 9 62 23 22 10 73 38 21 7 73 24 23 12 68.6 36.4 19.1 9.3 63.9 26.7 20.4 6.7
San Jose, CA.. 861 54 27 23 6 51 17 19 8 55 30 19 6 61 18 23 10 52 27 18 5 50 12 16 10 48 27 16 5 53 19 21 9 51 29 14 6 53 17 16 12 48.2 24.8 8.0 4.4 41.5 13.6 9.5 4.8
Seattle, WA.. 537 (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) 65.4 35.4 35.9 17.4 81.0 37.9 56.9 17.2
Spokane, WA.. 184 (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) 62.3 26.8 18.3 8.5 68.3 26.8 31.7 17.1
St. Louis, MO 339 68 28 50 9 69 15 63 6 74 36 50 11 76 15 69 8 77 39 51 11 69 18 57 8 75 52 43 10 73 29 55 7 74 48 41 10 70 31 53 9 71.7 50.2 34.8 10.9 69.3 31.9 43.6 4.9
Tucson, AZ 460 (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) 63.1 39.2 39.4 6.8 57.0 21.5 41.3 7.4
Washington, DC. 523 60 26 37 10 71 9 62 21 64 30 38 9 67 11 55 13 64 32 35 8 65 18 46 16 66 40 33 9 58 23 40 11 69 39 33 10 57 19 39 11 65.3 38.0 33.3 9.7 65.3 28.5 40.4 9.8


NA Not available.
1 Includes other drugs not shown separately.
2 1993-1997, represents Manhattan; beginning 1998, New York, NY.

Source: U.S. National Institute of Justice, 1993-1996, Drug Use Forecasting, annual; ADAM 1997 Annual Report on Adult and Juvenile Arrestees, July 1998, 1998 Annual Report on Adult and Juvenile Arrestees, April 1999.

http://www.ncjrs.org/drgsuse.htm

* Methodology

The Arrestee Drug Abuse Monitoring (ADAM) program, formerly the Drug Use Forecasting (DUF) program, collects data at selected arrest booking facilities throughout the United States. Each quarter, trained local ADAM staff obtain voluntary and anonymous urine specimens and interviews from new samples of booked arrestees. The ADAM sample is based on arrestees brought into the booking facility and detained in the facilities less than 48 hours. Arrestees released before booking are not part of the ADAM sample. At each site, approximately 225 males are sampled each quarter. In all except two sites, approximately 100 adult females also are sampled. At 12 sites, juvenile arrestees/detainees also are sampled. Generally, more than 90% of the arrestees selected for the sample agree to be interviewed and over 80% of those interviewed provide urine specimens.

Arrestees are not selected for the survey on a random or probability basis. Rather, adult male arrestees are selected at the discretion of site personnel, who are guided by a target sample size and crime charge priority system. To obtain samples of adult male arrestees with a sufficient distribution of serious arrest charges, ADAM interviewers, where possible, place a priority on felony arrestees and those arrested for offenses other than the sale or possession of drugs. Analyses have shown that those arrested for drug offenses are more likely than other arrestees to be using drugs; as a result, ADAM statistics are likely minimum estimates of drug use among the population of those adults arrested for serious offenses. With the exception of Omaha, males charged with driving offenses generally are excluded from the sample due to ADAM's emphasis on more serious crimes. (In Omaha, all male arrestees brought to the booking facilities are included in the ADAM sample to obtain a sample of sufficient size.) Because they are fewer in number, all adult female arrestees and all juvenile male and female arrestees/detainees brought to the booking center during the data collection period are included in the ADAM sample, regardless of charge.

In nine sites, Atlanta, Chicago, Denver, Detroit, Houston, Omaha, Philadelphia, St. Louis, and Washington, DC, the catchment area is the entire city. In Cleveland, Dallas, Ft. Lauderdale, Indianapolis, Manhattan, Miami, New Orleans, Phoenix, Portland, San Antonio, and San Jose, the catchment area is the entire county or parish. The catchment area for Los Angeles includes part of the city and part of the county, and in Birmingham and San Diego the catchment area includes the entire city and part of the county.

Twelve of the ADAM sites collect data from male juvenile arrestees/detainees. Eight of these sites also collect data on female arrestees/detainees; however given the small sample size across a majority of the ADAM female juvenile facilities, these data are not presented. For juveniles in each of the sites, excluding Washington, DC and St. Louis, the catchment area encompasses the county. In Washington, DC and St. Louis, only juveniles arrested and detained in the city are included. In Los Angeles, the catchment area comprises parts of the city and county.

All urine specimens are sent to a central laboratory for analysis. The specimens are analyzed for 10 drugs: cocaine, opiates, marijuana, phencyclidine (PCP), methadone, benzodiazepines, methaqualone, propoxyphene, barbiturates, and amphetamines. All positive results for amphetamines are confirmed by gas chromatography to eliminate positives that may be caused by over-the-counter drugs. For most drugs, the urine test can detect use in the previous 2 to 3 days. Exceptions are marijuana and PCP, which sometimes can be detected several weeks after use.

Beginning in 1996, the program adopted marijuana testing cutoff levels in accordance with new U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration guidelines. The new cutoff level, 50 ng/ml, is lower than the previous cutoff level thus more individuals using marijuana are identified. Analysis of trends at both cutoff levels revealed that overall there is a 5 to 7 percentage point increase in positive results at the new level. Caution should be used in comparing marijuana percentages for 1996 and 1997 with results from previous years.

*



https://allcountries.org/uscensus/346_drug_use_by_arrestees_in_major.html

These tables are based on figures supplied by the United States Census Bureau, U.S. Department of Commerce and are subject to revision by the Census Bureau.

Copyright © 2006 Photius Coutsoukis and Information Technology Associates, all rights reserved.