|| MAIN | SEARCH | FEEDBACK | FAQ | GLOSSARY | COUNTRIES | MAPS | ITA HOME PAGE ||
2. Vital Statistics
3. Health and Nutrition
5. Law Enforcement, Courts
6. Geography and Environment
7. Parks, Recreation, Travel
9. State and Local Government
Finances and Employment
10. Federal Government
Finances and Employment
11. National Defense and
12. Social Insurance and Human
13. Labor Force, Employment,
14. Income, Expenditures, and
16. Banking, Finance, and
17. Business Enterprise
18. Communications and
20. Science and Technology
21. Transportation - Land
22. Transportation - Air
24. Natural Resources
25. Construction and Housing
27. Domestic Trade and
28. Foreign Commerce and Aid
29. Outlying Areas
30. Comparative International
31. Industrial Outlook
32. 1997 Economic Census
1 Prior to 1976, drug abuse arrests were collected with no distinctions between the present day classifications of sales/ manufacturing and possession.
Source: U.S. Federal Bureau of Investigation, Crime in the United States, annual.
http://WWW.fbi.GOV/ucr/ucr.htm * Uniform Crime Reports
The FBIs UCR Program, which began in 1929, collects information on the following crimes reported to law enforcement authorities: homicide, forcible rape, robbery, aggravated assault, burglary, larceny-theft, motor vehicle theft, and arson. Arrests are reported for 21 additional crime categories. The UCR data are compiled from monthly law enforcement reports or individual crime incident records transmitted directly to the FBI or to centralized state agencies that then report to the FBI. Each report submitted to the UCR Program is examined thoroughly for reasonableness, accuracy, and deviations that may indicate errors. Large variations in crime levels may indicate modified records procedures, incomplete reporting, or changes in a jurisdictions boundaries. To identify any unusual fluctuations in an agencys crime counts, monthly reports are compared with previous submissions of the agency and with those for similar agencies.
In 1995, law enforcement agencies active in the UCR Program represented approximately 251 million United States inhabitants95 percent of the U.S. population. The UCR Program provides crime counts for the Nation as a whole, as well as for regions, states, counties, cities, and towns. This permits studies among neighboring jurisdictions and among those with similar populations and other common characteristics. UCR findings for each calendar year are published in a preliminary release in the spring, followed by a detailed annual report, Crime in the United States, issued in the following calendar year. In addition to crime counts and trends, this report includes data on crimes cleared, persons arrested (age, sex, and race), law enforcement personnel (including the number of sworn officers killed or assaulted), and the characteristics of homicides (including age, sex, and race of victims and offenders, victim-offender relationships, weapons used, and circum-stances surrounding the homicides). Other special reports are also available from the UCR Program. * Arrests
The arrest statistics report the number of arrests made by law enforcement agencies in a particular year -- not the number of individuals arrested, nor the number of crimes committed. The number of arrests is not equivalent to the number of people arrested because an unknown number of individuals are arrested more than once in the year. Nor do arrest statistics represent counts of crimes committed by arrested individuals, because a series of crimes committed by one individual may culminate in a single arrest or a single crime may result in the arrest of more than one person. This latter situation, many arrests resulting from one crime, is relatively common in juvenile law-violating behavior, because juveniles are more likely than adults to commit crimes in groups. This is the primary reason why arrest statistics should not be used to indicate the relative proportion of crime committed by juveniles and adults. Arrest statistics are most appropriately a measure of flow into the criminal and juvenile justice systems.
Arrest statistics also have limitations in measuring the volume of arrests for a particular offense. Under the UCR Program, the FBI requires law enforcement agencies to classify an arrest by the most serious offense charged in that arrest. For example, the arrest of a youth charged with aggravated assault and possession of a controlled substance would be reported to the FBI as an arrest for aggravated assault. Therefore, when arrest statistics show that law enforcement agencies made an estimated 220,700 arrests of young people for drug abuse violations in 1997, it means that a drug abuse violation was the most serious charge in these 220,700 arrests. An unknown number of additional arrests in 1997 included a drug charge as a lesser offense.
* The Crime Index
The following offenses and attempts to commit these offenses are used in compiling the Crime Index: (1) murder and nonnegligent manslaughter, (2) forcible rape, (3) robbery, (4) aggravated assault, (5) burglary, (6) larceny-theft, (7) motor vehicle theft, and (8) arson. Arson was added as the eighth index offense in October 1978. (Manslaughter by negligence and simple or minor assaults are not included in the Crime Index.)
Criminal homicide-- a. Murder and nonnegligent manslaughter: the willful (nonnegligent) killing of one human being by another. Deaths caused by negligence, attempts to kill, assaults to kill, suicides, accidental deaths, and justifiable homicides are excluded. Justifiable homicides are limited to: (1) the killing of a felon by a law enforcement officer in the line of duty and (2) the killing of a felon by a private citizen. b. Manslaughter by negligence: the killing of another person through gross negligence. Traffic fatalities are excluded. While manslaughter by negligence is a Part I crime, it is not included in the Crime Index.
Forcible rape--The carnal knowledge of a female forcibly and against her will. Included are rapes by force and attempts or assaults to rape. Statutory offenses (no force used--victim under age of consent) are excluded.
Robbery--The taking or attempting to take anything of value from the care, custody, or control of a person or persons by force or threat of force or violence and/or by putting the victim in fear.
Aggravated assault--An unlawful attack by one person upon another for the purpose of inflicting severe or aggravated bodily injury. This type of assault usually is accompanied by the use of a weapon or by means likely to produce death or great bodily harm. Simple assaults are excluded.
Burglary--breaking or entering--The unlawful entry of a structure to commit a felony or a theft. Attempted forcible entry is included.
Larceny-theft (except motor vehicle theft)--The unlawful taking, carrying, leading, or riding away of property from the possession or constructive possession of another. Examples are thefts of bicycles or automobile accessories, shoplifting, pocket-picking, or the stealing of any property or article which is not taken by force and violence or by fraud. Attempted larcenies are included. Embezzlement, "con" games, forgery, worthless checks, etc., are excluded.
Motor vehicle theft--The theft or attempted theft of a motor vehicle. A motor vehicle is self-propelled and runs on the surface and not on rails. Specifically excluded from this category are motorboats, construction equipment, airplanes, and farming equipment.
Part II offenses
Weapons; carrying, possessing, etc.--All violations of regulations or statutes controlling the carrying, using, possessing, furnishing, and manufacturing of deadly weapons or silencers. Attempts are included. Drug abuse violations--State and local offenses relating to the unlawful possession, sale, use, growing, and manufacturing of narcotic drugs. The following drug categories are specified: Opium or cocaine and their derivatives (morphine, heroin, codeine); marijuana; synthetic narcotics--manufactured narcotics that can cause true addiction (demerol, methadone); and dangerous non-narcotic drugs (barbiturates, benzedrine). *
These tables are based on figures supplied by the United States Census Bureau, U.S. Department of Commerce and are subject to revision by the Census Bureau.
Copyright © 2006 Photius Coutsoukis and Information Technology Associates, all rights reserved.