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32. 1997 Economic Census

1315. U.S. Businesses Acquired or Established by Foreign Direct Investors -- Investment Outlays, by Industry of U.S. Business Enterprise and Country of Ultimate Beneficial Owner

[In millions of dollars (65,932 represents $65,932,000,000). Foreign direct investment is the ownership or control, directly or indirectly, by one foreign individual branch, partnership, association, association, trust, corporation, or government of 10 percent or more of the voting securities of a U.S. business enterprise or an equivalent interest in an unincorporated one. Data represent number and full cost of acquisitions of existing U.S. business enterprises, including business segments or operating units of existing U.S. business enterprises and establishments of new enterprises. Investments may be made by the foreign direct investor itself, or indirectly by an existing U.S. affiliate of the foreign direct investor. Covers investments in U.S. business enterprises with assets of over $1 million, or ownership of 200 acres of U.S. land]

Industry Investment outlays Investment outlays
country 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999
    Total 65,932 25,538 15,333 26,229 45,626 57,195 79,929 69,708 215,256 (NA)
Petroleum .. 1,141 702 463 882 469 1,520 1,059 762 (D) (NA)
Manufacturing 23,898 11,461 6,014 11,090 21,218 26,643 27,835 19,603 89,739 (NA)
Wholesale trade 1,676 623 698 837 2,156 1,168 4,746 2,612 3,266 (NA)
Retail trade 1,250 1,605 256 1,495 1,542 2,838 2,988 435 1,938 (NA)
Depository institutions 1 897 482 529 958 2,026 2,301 1,944 3,547 1,563 (NA)
Finance, except
  depository institutions 1 2,121 2,199 797 1,599 2,195 7,837 8,676 7,019 16,607 (NA)
Insurance 2,093 2,102 291 1,105 450 654 4,688 8,526 4,709 (NA)
Real estate 7,771 3,823 2,161 1,883 2,647 2,996 4,175 4,119 6,144 (NA)
Services 19,369 2,256 2,023 4,162 7,163 5,881 15,292 12,187 10,099 (NA)
Other .. 5,716 284 2,101 2,218 5,760 5,359 8,528 10,898 (D) (NA)
Canada 3,430 3,454 1,351 3,797 4,128 8,029 9,700 11,755 22,635 11,388
Europe 36,011 13,994 8,344 16,845 31,920 38,195 49,427 44,014 170,173 205,150
  France 10,217 4,976 406 1,249 1,404 1,129 6,021 2,578 14,493 24,579
  Germany 3 2,363 1,922 1,964 2,841 3,328 13,117 12,858 6,464 39,873 24,393
  Netherlands 2,247 1,661 1,331 2,074 1,537 1,061 6,476 10,244 19,009 26,896
  Switzerland . 3,905 1,327 1,259 804 5,044 7,533 4,910 6,745 4,525 7,119
  United Kingdom 13,096 2,169 2,255 8,238 17,261 9,094 14,757 11,834 84,995 110,115
  Other Europe 4,183 1,939 1,129 1,639 3,346 6,261 4,405 6,149 7,278 12,048
Latin America and other
Western Hemisphere 796 375 1,438 874 1,352 1,550 1,790 924 11,354 34,013
  South and Central America 399 108 1,152 527 (D) 1,283 (D) 166 920 1,377
  Other Western Hemisphere 397 267 286 347 (D) 267 (D) 758 10,433 32,636
Africa (D) (D) (D) (D) (D) (D) (D) (D) 212 (D)
Middle East 472 1,006 238 1,308 (D) 447 (D) 847 2,810 546
Asia and Pacific 23,170 6,560 3,716 3,004 5,263 8,688 12,751 11,786 7,329 11,502
  Australia 1,412 251 164 129 1,522 2,270 2,222 7,600 (D) (D)
  Japan 19,933 5,357 2,921 2,065 2,715 3,602 8,813 2,326 4,862 8,048
  Other Asia and Pacific 1,825 952 631 810 1,026 2,816 1,716 1,860 (D) (D)
United States /4.. (D) (D) (D) (D) 201 (D) (D) (D) 743 (D)

(D) Suppressed to avoid disclosure of data of individual companies.
1 Prior to 1992, "depository institutions" excludes, and "finance, depository institutions" includes, savings institutions and credit unions. Beginning with 1992, savings institutions and credit unions have been reclassified from "finance, except depository institutions" to "depository institutions".
2 For investments in which more than one investor participated, each investor and each investor's outlays are classified by country of each ultimate beneficial owner.
3 Prior to 1990, this line includes data only for the Federal Republic of Germany. Beginning in 1990, this line also includes the former German Democratic Republic (GDR). This change has no effect on the data because, prior to 1991, there were no U.S. affiliates of the former GDR.
4 The UBO (ultimate beneficial owner) is that person, proceeding up a U.S. affiliate 's ownership chain, beginning with and including the foreign parent, that is not owned more than 50 percent by another person. The foreign parent is the first foreign person in the affiliate's ownership chain. Unlike the foreign parent, the UBO of an affiliate may be located in the United States.

Source: U.S. Bureau of Economic Analysis, Survey of Current Business, June 2000, and previous June issues.

* Key Terms

Direct investment. Investment in which a resident of one country obtains a lasting interest in, and a degree of influence over the management of, a business enterprise in another country. In the United States, the criterion used to distinguish direct investment from other types of investment is ownership of at least 10 percent of the voting securities of an incorporated business enterprise or the equivalent interest in an unincorporated business enterprise.

U.S. direct investment abroad (USDIA). The ownership or control, directly or indirectly, by one U.S. resident of 10 percent or more of the voting securities of an incorporated foreign business enterprise or the equivalent interest in an unincorporated foreign business enterprise.

Foreign direct investment in the United States (FDIUS). The ownership or control, directly or indirectly, by one foreign resident of 10 percent or more of the voting securities of an incorporated U.S. business enterprise or the equivalent interest in an unincorporated U.S. business enterprise.

Foreign affiliate. A foreign business enterprise in which a single U.S. investor (that is, a U.S. parent) owns at least 10 percent of the voting securities, or the equivalent.

U.S. affiliate. A U.S. business enterprise in which a single foreign investor (that is, a foreign parent) owns at least 10 percent of the voting securities, or the equivalent. Direct investment capital flows. Fundsthat parent companiespro-vide to their affiliates net of funds that affiliates provide to their parents. For USDIA, capital flows also include the funds that U.S. direct investors pay to unaffiliated foreign parties when affiliates are acquired and the funds that U.S. investors receive from them when affiliates are sold. Similarly, FDIUS capital flows include the funds that foreign direct investors pay to unaffiliated U.S. residents when affiliates are acquired and the funds that foreign investors receive from them when affiliates are sold.

Direct investment capital flows consist of equity capital, intercompany debt,andreinvested earnings. Equity capital flows are the net of equity capital increases and decreases. Equity capital increases consist of payments made by parents to third parties for the purchase of capital stock when they acquire an existing business, as well as funds that parents provide to their affiliates that increase their ownership interest in the affiliates. Equity capital decreases are funds parents receive when they reduce their equity interest in existing affiliates. Intercompany debt flows result from changes in net outstanding loans and trade accounts between parents and their affiliates; they include loans by parents to affiliates and loans by af- filiates to parents. Reinvested earnings are the parents claim on the undistributed after-tax earnings of the affiliates.

Direct investment position. The value of direct investors equity in, and net outstanding loans to, their affiliates. The position may be viewed as the parents contributions to the total assets of their affiliates or as the financing provided in the form of equity (including reinvested earnings) or debt by parents to their affiliates. Financing obtained from other sources, such as local or foreign third-party borrowing, is excluded.

BEA provides estimates of the positions for USDIA and for FDIUS that are valued on three baseshistorical cost, current cost, and market value. At historical cost, the positions are valued according to the values carried on the books of affiliates; thus, most investments reflect price levels of earlier time periods. At current cost, the portion of the position representing parents shares of their affiliates tangible assets (property, plant, and equipment and inventories) is revalued from historical cost to replacement cost. At market value, the owners equity portion of the position is revalued to current market value using indexes of stock prices.

Valuation adjustments to the historical-cost position. Adjustments to account for the differences between changes in the position, which are measured at book value, and direct investment capital flows, which are measured at transactions value. (Unlike the positions on a current-cost and market-value basis, the historical-cost position is not adjusted to account for changes in the replacement cost of the tangible assets of affiliates or in the market value of parent companies equity in affiliates.)

Valuation adjustments to the historical-cost position consist of currency translation and other adjustments. Currency-translation adjustments are made to account for changes in the exchange rates that are used to translate affiliates foreign-currency-denominated assets and liabilities into U.S. dollars. The precise effects of currency fluctuations on these adjustments depend on the value and currency composition of affiliates assets and liabilities. Depreciation of foreign currencies against the dollar usually results in negative translation adjustments because it tends to lower the dollar value of foreign-currency-denominated net assets. Similarly, appreciation of foreign currencies usually results in positive adjustments because it tends to raise the dollar value of foreign-currency-denominated net assets.

Other adjustments are made to account for differences between the proceeds from the sale or liquidation of affiliates and their book values, for differences between the purchase prices of affiliates and their book values, for writeoffs resulting from uncompensated expropriations of affiliates, for changes in industry of affiliate or country of foreign parent, and for capital gains and losses (other than currency translation adjustments). These capital gains and losses represent the revaluation of the assets of ongoing affiliates for reasons other than exchange-rate changes, such as the partial sale of the assets for an amount different from their historical cost.

The largest component of capital flows underlying the changes in both positions was equity capital, which includes the funds used to acquire and establish new affiliates and capital contributions to existing affiliates. Equity capital accounted for almost half of the total outflows for USDIA and over four-fifths of the total inflows for FDIUS.


These tables are based on figures supplied by the United States Census Bureau, U.S. Department of Commerce and are subject to revision by the Census Bureau.

Copyright © 2006 Photius Coutsoukis and Information Technology Associates, all rights reserved.