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1312. Foreign direct Investment Position in the United States on a Historical-Cost Basis Country

[In millions of dollars (535,553 represents $535,553,000,000). Foreign direct investment is defined as the ownership or control, directly or indirectly, by one foreign person of 10 percent or more of the voting securities of an incorporated U.S. business enterprise or the equivalent interest in an unincorporated U.S. business enterprise. Data are based on surveys of U.S. affiliates of foreign companies]

 
1995 1996 1997 1998 1999
Country Petro- Manufac- Whole- Petro- Manufac- Whole- Petro- Manufac- Whole- Petro- Manufac- Whole- Petro- Manufac- Whole-
Total 1 leum turing, sale Total 1 leum turing, sale Total 1 leum turing, sale Total 1 leum turing, sale Total 1 leum turing, sale
total trade total trade total trade total trade total trade
 
    All countries 535,553 34,907 214,504 66,871 594,088 43,770 242,320 75,115 689,834 42,632 271,287 86,248 793,748 51,729 334,898 89,980 986,668 55,940 391,013 108,936
 
Canada 45,618 3,241 20,320 2,466 54,799 3,515 22,298 4,020 65,144 3,199 24,251 4,119 74,143 2,526 26,507 4,216 79,716 2,836 26,270 4,467
 
Europe 332,374 24,039 156,543 26,280 368,322 29,285 174,326 32,743 433,876 30,526 200,042 37,545 528,601 46,008 251,750 45,513 685,845 49,642 305,543 49,312
  Austria 1,553 (D) 250 455 1,769 (D) 261 361 1,756 (D) 298 207 1,969 (D) 360 393 2,483 (D) 674 425
  Belgium 4,397 (D) 2,282 356 4,838 (D) 2,219 482 6,397 1,186 3,529 842 10,966 (D) 4,068 1,096 11,448 204 3,972 1,516
  Denmark 3,444 5 1,035 1,193 2,765 5 745 1,455 2,921 5 702 1,782 3,312 5 831 1,871 4,959 3 956 3,617
  Finland 2,710 (D) 1,717 (D) 2,495 (D) 1,798 369 3,588 (D) 1,596 (D) 4,106 (D) 1,262 1,799 4,816 (D) 1,435 (D)
  France 36,167 (D) 21,573 1,564 41,132 429 26,978 1,694 49,515 (D) 29,303 1,942 58,051 (D) 38,087 2,426 77,622 (D) 39,087 2,191
  Germany 46,017 (D) 24,989 8,581 59,863 (D) 28,752 10,176 70,901 (D) 33,787 12,675 94,404 138 54,392 9,226 111,138 173 59,303 10,013
  Ireland 4,749 (D) 1,495 605 6,621 401 2,125 1,067 10,719 390 2,791 823 12,484 739 2,674 3,433 17,969 699 3,868 3,534
  Italy 3,062 (D) 876 507 3,327 (D) 738 558 3,104 294 642 469 4,143 (D) 918 329 4,982 (D) 1,050 292
  Liechtenstein 176 -2 19 73 165 -2 33 58 126 (D) 4 66 109 0 (D) 56 135 0 -1 88
 
  Luxembourg 5,756 (Z) 4,163 343 4,276 0 2,127 1,344 11,433 0 8,921 1,519 26,650 93 (D) 1,326 54,894 (D) 45,305 1,565
  Netherlands 65,116 11,588 19,130 4,686 74,320 12,516 25,914 5,651 87,584 12,960 31,015 5,454 98,926 11,400 38,041 5,755 130,703 11,083 42,922 6,659
  Norway 2,172 296 1,319 68 2,484 356 1,490 82 3,062 (D) 1,397 (D) 3,833 (D) 1,938 161 4,201 1,240 2,044 221
  Spain 3,237 7 360 103 2,405 -1 449 111 2,295 4 600 120 2,285 -3 728 151 2,629 -6 1,014 160
  Sweden 9,584 (D) 7,061 1,520 9,479 (D) 6,463 1,962 11,029 (D) 8,538 1,161 15,139 (D) 7,335 4,350 17,904 (D) 6,856 4,856
  Switzerland 27,458 485 13,506 1,433 30,390 478 15,602 1,850 37,874 194 21,144 1,962 48,403 243 24,253 2,307 55,280 572 27,814 2,386
  United Kingdom 116,272 9,275 56,703 3,888 121,288 10,856 58,554 5,176 130,883 13,202 55,682 6,916 143,165 30,069 54,765 10,692 183,145 33,446 68,242 8,751
  Other 503 (D) 67 (D) 706 (D) 78 348 689 (D) 92 311 654 11 389 139 1,537 8 1,000 (D)
 
Latin America and other
    Western Hemisphere 27,873 2,032 6,005 923 29,180 3,160 4,333 1,275 33,008 3,166 3,666 2,157 27,854 917 4,351 2,109 44,591 1,836 6,028 2,402
 
  South and Central America 8,067 -310 822 -194 8,802 -98 355 99 9,989 -783 259 437 9,819 -693 1,159 283 10,606 -370 1,980 328
   Brazil 750 (D) -120 13 689 (D) -168 60 703 (D) -199 78 635 (D) -176 -30 651 (D) -157 43
   Mexico 1,850 -11 952 -99 1,436 -18 504 149 3,244 -8 611 473 2,432 -8 1,315 451 3,612 -3 2,243 348
   Panama 4,939 (D) 133 15 5,817 (D) 166 -41 5,898 -56 (Z) -48 6,504 (D) 165 -104 5,896 13 89 56
   Venezuela -152 -513 -17 -8 10 -312 -15 15 -360 (D) -44 9 -529 (D) -23 -2 -170 (D) -42 2
   Other 679 (D) -124 -114 849 365 -132 -83 505 (D) -110 -75 778 10 -123 -32 617 9 -154 -122
 
  Other Western Hemisphere 19,806 2,341 5,182 1,117 20,378 3,258 3,978 1,176 23,019 3,949 3,407 1,720 18,034 1,611 3,192 1,826 33,984 2,206 4,048 2,075
   Bahamas 1,286 (D) 114 133 1,806 (D) 151 263 1,822 (D) 127 317 2,077 (D) 147 474 2,163 (D) 136 511
   Bermuda 2,626 132 819 233 1,411 141 -187 251 3,506 133 423 245 3,740 182 219 213 13,054 153 862 (D)
   Netherlands Antilles 8,044 (D) 2,904 (D) 9,311 2,701 2,510 (D) 5,673 2,692 1,194 176 2,844 (D) 788 (D) 2,695 607 1,268 (D)
   United Kingdom Islands, Caribbean 7,207 (D) 1,318 500 7,614 (D) 1,453 500 11,425 (D) 1,639 678 9009 506 2054 820 13,883 1,247 1,789 1,552
   Other 644 -1 27 (D) 235 (D) 51 (D) 593 29 24 303 363 (D) -16 (D) 2,189 (D) -6 (D)
 
Africa 1,113 (D) 275 -6 645 (D) 219 -4 1,464 (D) -15 1 862 3 -92 98 1,545 20 -172 426
  South Africa -3 (Z) -1 (Z) -30 1 -36 6 -33 1 -62 6 121 2 -85 (D) 427 1 -103 (D)
  Other 1,115 (D) 276 -7 675 (D) 255 -10 1,497 (D) 47 -4 741 (Z) -7 (D) 1,118 19 -69 (D)
 
Middle East 5,801 (D) 730 431 5,977 (D) 942 119 6,585 (D) 906 91 6,346 925 691 157 7,087 868 1,150 164
  Israel 1,883 0 307 419 1,857 0 914 109 1,929 0 893 91 2,084 -3 867 156 2,680 0 1,144 174
  Kuwait 2,525 (D) (D) 2 2,572 4 (D) 2 2,930 4 1 2 (D) (D) 1 0 3,391 (D) 1 0
  Lebanon -9 0 (D) (D) -11 0 (D) (Z) -14 0 (D) (Z) -19 0 (D) (Z) -21 0 (D) (Z)
  Saudi Arabia 1,211 (D) (D) 9 1,390 (D) -1 8 1,566 (D) 1 (Z) (D) (D) -6 0 949 (D) -3 (D)
  United Arab Emirates 98 -4 -1 1 87 -5 -1 (Z) 76 -4 -1 (Z) 43 -11 -2 0 16 (D) -4 0
  Other 93 (Z) 1 (D) 82 0 (D) -1 97 (Z) (D) -1 -102 0 (D) 1 72 (D) (D) (D)
 
Asia and Pacific 122,774 4,415 30,631 36,776 135,166 6,454 40,201 36,961 149,757 4,226 42,436 42,335 155,943 1,350 51,691 37,887 167,884 737 52,195 52,165
  Australia 10,356 (D) 3,002 14 13,877 (D) 2,890 274 13,977 4,173 2,160 -63 12,883 780 2,142 -37 10,818 763 2,574 -1
  Hong Kong 1,511 2 229 606 1,644 4 235 647 1,768 -16 316 647 1,578 (D) 385 413 1,210 (D) 484 362
  Japan 104,997 83 25,535 34,502 114,534 118 35,178 34,972 126,464 212 37,471 40,856 134,590 734 47,347 35,462 148,947 165 47,277 49,454
  Korea, Republic of 692 (D) 63 807 310 (D) 59 377 363 (D) 35 109 974 (D) 15 844 1,520 (D) 234 1,205
  Malaysia 400 (D) 239 (D) 475 (D) 296 12 287 (D) 80 17 100 (D) 54 22 -20 (Z) 38 8
  New Zealand 149 0 9 (D) 139 1 -18 119 205 (D) -25 138 337 0 23 176 329 0 20 138
  Philippines 75 0 4 7 79 0 3 22 82 0 14 15 93 (Z) 11 -4 116 (Z) 15 -19
  Singapore 1,637 -19 303 170 1,232 -13 273 142 2,970 20 999 196 1,561 -11 243 299 1,049 (Z) 237 234
  Taiwan 2,142 -1 1,160 346 2,225 -1 1,201 375 2,840 -1 1,264 460 3,144 -2 1,454 595 2,983 -4 1,257 565
  Other 815 -7 86 217 650 -6 82 22 801 53 122 -39 683 -22 16 117 932 -17 60 219
 
Addenda:
  European Union (15) 2 302,193 23,258 141,630 24,530 334,714 28,449 157,136 30,401 392,243 29,239 177,425 35,028 475,725 44,637 225,196 42,856 624,807 47,831 274,729 46,427
  OPEC 3 3,854 622 349 7 4,235 1,003 -64 27 4,493 794 -58 5 4,132 113 -55 4 4,528 398 -29 2


D Suppressed to avoid disclosure of data of individual companies. Z Less than $500,000.
1 Includes other industries not shown separately.
2 The European Union (15) comprises Austria, Belgium, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Ireland, Italy, Luxembourg, the Netherlands, Portugal, Spain, Sweden, and the United Kingdom.
3 OPEC is the Organization of Petroleum Exporting countries. Its members are Algeria, Indonesia, Iran, Iraq, Kuwait, Libya, Nigeria, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, the United Arab Emirates, and Venezuela.

Source: U.S. Bureau of Economic Analysis, Survey of Current Business, July 1999, and previous issues.

http://www.bea.doc.gov/bea/ai1.htm

* Terms

Below are definitions and descriptions of some of the key terms used in this article. For a more detailed discussion of these terms and the methodologies used to prepare the estimates, see Foreign Direct Investment in the United States: 1992 Benchmark Survey, Final Results (Washington, DC:U.S. Government Printing Office, 1995) and U.S. Direct Investment Abroad: 1994 Benchmark Survey, Final Results (Washington, DC:U.S.GovernmentPrinting Office, 1998).

Direct investment. Investment in which a resident of one country obtains a lasting interest in, and a degree of influence over the management of, a business enterprise in another country. In the United States, the criterion used to distinguish direct investment from other types of investment is ownership of at least 10 percent of the voting securities of an incorporated business enterprise or the equivalent interest in an unincorporated business enterprise.

U.S. direct investment abroad (USDIA). The ownership or control, directly or indirectly, by one U.S. resident of 10 percent or more of the voting securities of an incorporated foreign business enterprise or the equivalent interest in an unincorporated foreign business enterprise.

Foreign direct investment in the United States (FDIUS). The ownership or control, directly or indirectly, by one foreign resident of 10 percent or more of the voting securities of an incorporated U.S. business enterprise or the equivalent interest in an unincorporated U.S. business enterprise.

Foreign affiliate. A foreign business enterprise in which a single U.S. investor (that is, a U.S. parent) owns at least 10 percent of the voting securities, or the equivalent.

U.S. affiliate. A U.S. business enterprise in which a single foreign investor (that is, a foreign parent) owns at least 10 percent of the voting securities, or the equivalent.

Direct investment capital flows. Funds that parent companies provide to their affiliates net of funds that affiliates provide to their parents. For USDIA, capital flows also include the funds that U.S. direct investors pay to unaffiliated foreign parties when affiliates are acquired and the funds that U.S. investors receive from them when affiliates are sold. Similarly, FDIUS capital flows include the funds that foreign direct investors pay to unaffiliated U.S. residents when affiliates are acquired and the funds that foreign investors receive from them when affiliates are sold.

Direct investment capital flows consist of equity capital, intercompany debt,andreinvested earnings. Equity capital flows are the net of equity capital increases and decreases. Equity capital increases consist of payments made by parents to third parties for the purchase of capital stock when they acquire an existing business, as well as funds that parents provide to their affiliates that increase their ownership interest in the affiliates. Equity capital decreases are funds parents receive when they reduce their equity interest in existing affiliates. Intercompany debt flows result from changes in net outstanding loans and trade accounts between parents and their affiliates; they include loans by parents to affiliates and loans by af- filiates to parents. Reinvested earnings are the parents claim on the undistributed after-tax earnings of the affiliates.

Direct investment position. The value of direct investors equity in, and net outstanding loans to, their affiliates. The position may be viewed as the parents contributions to the total assets of their affiliates or as the financing provided in the form of equity (including reinvested earnings) or debt by parents to their affiliates. Financing obtained from other sources, such as local or foreign third-party borrowing, is excluded.

BEA provides estimates of the positions for USDIA and for FDIUS that are valued on three baseshistorical cost, current cost, and market value. At historical cost, the positions are valued according to the values carried on the books of affiliates; thus, most investments reflect price levels of earlier time periods. At current cost, the portion of the position representing parents shares of their affiliates tangible assets (property, plant, and equipment and inventories) is revalued from historical cost to replacement cost. At market value, the owners equity portion of the position is revalued to current market value using indexes of stock prices.

Valuation adjustments to the historical-cost position. Adjustments to account for the differences between changes in the position, which are measured at book value, and direct investment capital flows, which are measured at transactions value. (Unlike the positions on a current-cost and market-value basis, the historical-cost position is not adjusted to account for changes in the replacement cost of the tangible assets of affiliates or in the market value of parent companies equity in affiliates.)

Valuation adjustments to the historical-cost position consist of currency translation and other adjustments. Currency-translation adjustments are made to account for changes in the exchange rates that are used to translate affiliates foreign-currency-denominated assets and liabilities into U.S. dollars. The precise effects of currency fluctuations on these adjustments depend on the value and currency composition of affiliates assets and liabilities. Depreciation of foreign currencies against the dollar usually results in negative translation adjustments because it tends to lower the dollar value of foreign-currency-denominated net assets. Similarly, appreciation of foreign currencies usually results in positive adjustments because it tends to raise the dollar value of foreign-currency-denominated net assets.

Other adjustments are made to account for differences between the proceeds from the sale or liquidation of affiliates and their book values, for differences between the purchase prices of affiliates and their book values, for writeoffs resulting from uncompensated expropriations of affiliates, for changes in industry of affiliate or country of foreign parent, and for capital gains and losses (other than currency translation adjustments). These capital gains and losses represent the revaluation of the assets of ongoing affiliates for reasons other than exchange-rate changes, such as the partial sale of the assets for an amount different from their historical cost.

The largest component of capital flows underlying the changes in both positions was equity capital, which includes the funds used to acquire and establish new affiliates and capital contributions to existing affiliates. Equity capital accounted for almost half of the total outflows for USDIA and over four-fifths of the total inflows for FDIUS. *



https://allcountries.org/uscensus/1312_foreign_direct_investment_position_in_the.html

These tables are based on figures supplied by the United States Census Bureau, U.S. Department of Commerce and are subject to revision by the Census Bureau.

Copyright © 2006 Photius Coutsoukis and Information Technology Associates, all rights reserved.