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32. 1997 Economic Census
D Withheld to avoid disclosure. NA Not available. X Not applicable.
1 64 megabytes in MINIMUM main memory configuration.
2 Up to 64 megabytes in MINIMUM main memory configuration.
3 Data not shown because it is not comparable to prior years.
4 N.e.c. = Not elsewhere classsified.
Source: U.S. Census Bureau, through 1992, Current Industrial Report, Series MA35R, annual; thereafter, Manufacturing Profiles, Series MP, annual; and Internet
Note: Beginning with the 1997 Current Industrial Report, the data has been restructured to better reflect the industry. For the first time, data for personal computers and workstations have been broken out. In addition, portable computers have been broken out with some items being published. Previous years' data are not comparable to 1997.
* COMPUTERS AND OFFICE MACHINES
To provide detailed data on quantity and total value of shipments of computers, and office and accounting machines. The United States Code, Title 13, authorizes this survey and provides for mandatory responses.
Companies that manufacture computers, magnetic media, and office and accounting machines in the U.S. (most but not all are in SIC 357 and 3695), except small firms (generally less than 10 employees) for which census of manufactures data were from administrative records. In 1993, shipments of covered equipment totaled over $58 billion.
Product data are collected for over 100 types of computers, and office and accounting machines. Data at the 7-digit SIC level include quantity and value of shipments.
Annually; reported data are for activities taking place during the previous calendar year. Data on computers and office and accounting machines have been collected since 1953.
A mail-out/mail-back survey of 1,750 known manufacturers. Companies are identified from the latest census of manufactures, Standard Statistical Establishment List, and private sources. Firms are contacted using form MA35R. Data may be revised if firms later provide corrected data. Annual data are compared with data collected from the latest annual survey of manufactures to reconcile any differences between the two series. No estimates are derived for small firms excluded from the survey.
Computers. These automatic data processing units are capable of:(1)performing arithmetic computations,(2) processing data in accordance with a processing program, (3)immediately storing the processing program and the data necessary for execution of the processing program, and (4)executing a processing program without human intervention,on the basis of instructions contained in the program,to automatically modify execution by logical decision during the performance of processing tasks.
General-purpose computers. A computer designed to solve a large variety of problems;e. g. ,a stored program computer that may be adapted to any of a very large class of applications.
Digital computers. A computer that processes informa- tion represented by combinations of discrete or discon- tinuous data,compared with an analog computer for con- tinuous data. More specifically,it is a device for performing sequences or arithmetic and logical opera- tions. Still more specifically,it is a stored program digital computer capable of performing sequences of internally stored instructions,as opposed to calculators,on which a sequence is impressed manually.
Analog computers. A computer that represents variables by physical analogies. Thus,any computer that solves problems by translating physical conditions such as flow, temperature,pressure,angular position,or voltage into related mechanical or electrical equivalent circuits as an analog for the physical phenomenon being investigated. In general,it is a computer that uses an analog for each vari- able and produces analogs as output. Thus,an analog computer measures continuously;whereas,a digital com- puter counts discretely.
Hybrid computers. A computer designed with both digi- tal and analog characteristics,combining the advantages of analog as well as digital computers,when working as a system. Hybrid computers are used extensively in simula- tion process control systems where it is necessary to have a close representation with the physical world. The hybrid system provides better precision than can be attained with analog computers and greater speed than is possible with digital computers,plus the ability to accept input data in either form.
Special-purpose computers. A special-purpose com- puter is a general-purpose computer programmed and/or configured to operate upon a restricted class of problems.
Peripheral equipment for computers. In a data pro- cessing system,any equipment,distinct from the process- ing unit,that may provide the system with outside com- munication or additional facilities. Includes input/output typewriters and displays sold as part of a large office system. Included are:
Input/output equipment. Terminals include those units that,in addition to their capabilities of displaying data or accepting data input,are capable of performing other functions such as stamping approvals for bank account withdrawals,time stamping,and issuing receipts. A unit is included if it meets all of the following conditions:
1. It is connectable to the processing unit either directly or through one or more other units;
2. It is specifically designed as part of such a system. (It must in particular,unless it is a power supply unit,be able to accept or deliver data in a form (code or sig- nals)that can be used by the system. )
Computer storage devices. Storage in addition to the main storage of a computer;e. g. ,magnetic tapes,disks,or magnetic drums. Auxiliary storage usually holds much larger amounts of information than the main storage,and the information is accessible less rapidly. Computer termi- nals. A point at which information can enter or leave a computer communication network. An input/output device to send or receive data in an environment associ- ated with the job to be performed,capable of transmitting entries to and obtaining output from the computer system of which it is a part.
Cash registers. Stand-alone electronic devices,including adding device with cash drawer and excluding terminals that have interactive communication capablities. Firmware based,fixed or parameterized function devices developed primarily for cash control,with limited transaction or mer- chandise information as a byproduct.
Fund transfer devices. Devices facilitating the handling of various financial transactions involving the consumer and financial institutions. Typically,these devices provide ser- vices such as account status inquiries,transfers of funds to and from various accounts,withdrawals,deposits,and payments.
Point-of-sale devices. Devices facilitating the handling of various retail transactions involving the sale,exchange,or return of merchandise or service.
Accounting machines. A keyboard actuated machine that prepares accounting records. A machine that may read data from external storage media such as cards or tapes,and automatically produces accounting records or tabulations,usually on continuous forms. Calculating machines. Devices requiring manual means for entering numerical data for performance of arithmetic operations. These machines,by nature,require frequent operator intervention. A calculator uses separate,fixed storage areas for its programs and for the storage of data. These machines cannot execute programs that modify themselves during their execution. There are two major classifications of these machines:printing calculating machines print one or more of the significant elements of computation;nonprinting calculating machines display one or more of the significant elements of computations. Includes both three-and four-operation printing calcula- tors. Three-operation printing calculators are those incor- porating short-cut multiplication and/or fully automatic multiplication and division.
Duplicating machines. A machine in which an ink image on a master is transferred onto a copy paper.
Postage franking machines. Machines that print a design in place of the postage stamp. The machine has a non-reversible totalling device that adds up the total value of the postage printed. In addition,the machine can often be used for other printing on the envelope;e. g. ,advertis- ing slogans.
Dictating,transcribing,and recording machines and systems. Machines that are designed as office machines for conference recording,combination dictating,and tele- phone recording used to produce a written record,but excluding home-type wire and tape recorders. A single recording unit with a number of dictating stations should be counted as one unit or system. A system consists of a recorder and a transcribing unit with more than one dictat- ing station.
Standard typewriters. Machines,electric or nonelectric, designed solely for preparation of documents with letter printlike characters and symbols that are operated manu- ally by consecutive depressing of keyboard keys. A type- writer contains a four-row keyboard,including alpha and numeric as well as special symbols. It may or may not include special attachments to be used in the preparation of addresses or other stencils,braille typing for the blind, and similar materials. In addition,it may or may not include special carriages,pin-feed platens,and other devices used to increase the speed of the typing on con- tinuous forms. Machines that include accounting registers are excluded.
Bar code. An array of rectangular bars and spaces arranged in a predetermined pattern,following unambigu- ous rules in a specific way,to represent elements of data that are referred to as characters.
Code reader or scanner. A device that examines a spa- tial pattern,one part after another,and generates analog or digital signals corresponding to the pattern. The major components of a bar code scanner are a illumination source,a photodetector device,and a microcomputer. A focused light beam is moved across the symbol (bar code),the reflected light is received by the photodetector, which in turn generates a voltage (analog signal)that is proportional to the amount of light reflected by the signal. The signal from the photodetector is conditioned by pre- processor circuitry before being presented to the micro- computer for analysis.
Decoder. An electronic package that receives the signals from the scanner,and then performs the algorithm to interpret the signals into meaningful data and provides the interface to other devices.
Optical character recognition (OCR). Relies on a sen- sor to differentiate between light-reflecting background and printed data that do not reflect light. Output from the sensor is fed to a set of recognition logics,and then for- warded to the computer.
Magnetic strip. Records,or encodes,information onto a material,using low or high energy electromagnetic charges. These charges or signals can then be read by a decorder that translates them into numbers and characters for identification by a computer.
Radio frequency. A system based on the ability of an identification tag (transponder)to receive radio frequency signals and output a code to a reader.
Voice recognition. A computer recognizes words i a preprogrammed vocabulary. The operator speaks the words into a microphone,and the word or phrase is recog- nized by the machine and converted into electronic impulses for the micro or host computer. Machine vision. Devices used for optical noncontact sensing to receive and interpret automatically an image of a real scene,to obtain information,and/or to control machines or processes.
Image processor. Selects and interprets data to deter- mine an object s position,location,shape,and size.
These tables are based on figures supplied by the United States Census Bureau, U.S. Department of Commerce and are subject to revision by the Census Bureau.
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