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NA Not available. Z Less than $500,000.
1 Includes bituminous coal, lignite, and anthracite.
2 All domestic production data for 1970 and 1975 are for mines producing 1,000 short tons or more per year; thereafter, data are for all mines.
3 Includes some categories not shown separately.
4 Includes beehive coke.
Source: 1970 and 1975, U.S. Bureau of Mines, Minerals Yearbook; thereafter, U.S. Energy Information Administration, Annual Energy Review; International Energy Annual; Coal Industry, annual and Quarterly Coal Report.
Anthracite: The highest rank of coal; used primarily for residential and commercial space heating. It is a hard, brittle, and black lustrous coal, often referred to as hard coal, containing a high percentage of fixed carbon and a low percentage of volatile matter. The moisture content of fresh-mined anthracite generally is less than 15 percent. The heat content of anthracite ranges from 22 to 28 million Btu per short ton on a moist, mineral-matter-free basis. The heat content of anthracite coal consumed in the United States averages 25 million Btu per short ton, on the as-received basis (i.e., containing both inherent moisture and mineral matter). Note: Since the 1980's, anthracite refuse or mine waste has been used for steam electric power generation. This fuel typically has a heat content of 15 million Btu per short ton or less.
Bituminous Coal: A dense coal, usually black, sometimes dark brown, often with well-defined bands of bright and dull material, used primarily as fuel in steam-electric power generation, with substantial quantities also used for heat and power applications in manufacturing and to make coke. Bituminous coal is the most abundant coal in active U.S. mining regions. Its moisture content usually is less than 20 percent. The heat content of bituminous coal ranges from 21 to 30 million Btu per ton on a moist, mineral-matter-free basis. The heat content of bituminous coal consumed in the United States averages 24 million Btu per ton, on the as-received basis (i.e., containing both inherent moisture and mineral matter).
Coal: A readily combustible black or brownish-black rock whose composition, including inherent moisture, consists of more than 50 percent by weight and more than 70 percent by volume of carbonaceous material. It is formed from plant remains that have been compacted, hardened, chemically altered, and metamorphosed by heat and pressure over geologic time.
Coke (coal): A solid carbonaceous residue derived from low-ash, low-sulfur bituminous coal from which the volatile constituents are driven off by baking in an oven at temperatures as high as 2,000 degrees Fahrenheit so that the fixed carbon and residual ash are fused together. Coke is used as a fuel and as a reducing agent in smelting iron ore in a blast furnace. Coke from coal is grey, hard, and porous and has a heating value of 24.8 million Btu per short ton.
Lignite: The lowest rank of coal, often referred to as brown coal, used almost exclusively as fuel for steam-electric power generation. It is brownish-black and has a high inherent moisture content, sometimes as high as 45 percent The heat content of lignite ranges from 9 to 17 million Btu per ton on a moist, mineral-matter-free basis. The heat content of lignite consumed in the United States averages 13 million Btu per ton, on the as-received basis (i.e., containing both inherent moisture and mineral matter).
Subbituminous Coal: A coal whose properties range from those of lignite to those of bituminous coal and used primarily as fuel for steam-electric power generation. It may be dull, dark brown to black, soft and crumbly, at the lower end of the range, to bright, jet black, hard, and relatively strong, at the upper end. Subbituminous coal contains 20 to 30 percent inherent moisture by weight. The heat content of subbituminous coal ranges from 17 to 24 million Btu per ton on a moist, mineral-matter-free basis. The heat content of subbituminous coal consumed in the United States averages 17 to 18 million Btu per ton, on the as-received basis (i.e., containing both inherent moisture and mineral matter).
Coal Exports: Amount of U.S. coal shipped to foreign destinations, as reported in the U.S. Department of Commerce, Bureau of Census, "Monthly Report EM 545."
Coal Imports: Amount of foreign coal shipped to the United States, as reported in the U.S. Department of Commerce, Bureau of the Census, "Monthly Report IM 145."
Number of Mines: The number of mines, or mines collocated with preparation plants or tipples, located in a particular geographic area (State or region). If a mine is mining coal across two counties within a State, or across two States, then it is counted as two operations. This is done so that EIA can separate production by State and county.
Surface Mine: A coal mine that is usually within a few hundred feet of the surface. Earth and rock above or around the coal (overburden) is removed to expose the coalbed, which is then mined with surface excavation equipment such as draglines, power shovels, bulldozers, loaders, and augers. Surface mines include: area, contour, open-pit, strip, or auger mine.
Underground Mine: A mine where coal is produced by tunneling into the earth to the coalbed, which is then mined with underground mining equipment such as cutting machines and continuous, longwall, and shortwall mining machines. Underground mines are classified according to the type of opening used to reach the coal, i.e., drift (level tunnel), slope (inclined tunnel), or shaft (vertical tunnel). * Coal Surveys
Quarterly Coal Consumption Report - Manufacturing Plants (Form EIA-3)
Form EIA-3 is used to survey U.S. manufacturers that consume 1,000 tons or more of coal per year for all uses other than coke production. Data on manufacturers' coal stocks, receipts, prices, and consumption are reported.
In order to identify under-coverage problems, the data from this survey are compared with shipments to manufacturers reported on EIA's "Coal Distribution Report," Form EIA-6. At present, the coal receipts reported by manufacturers on Form EIA-3 cover approximately 99 percent of the coal shipments to manufacturers on Form EIA-6. Consequently, the coal consumption data gathered on the Form EIA-3 do not represent the total consumption at manufacturing plants.
Current year data from this survey are preliminary and unrevised in the January - March, April - June, and July - September issues of the Quarterly Coal Report (DOE/EIA-0121). In the October - December issue, any revisions necessary for the entire year are applied and the data are considered final.
The respondent list of manufacturers for Form EIA-3 is compared with lists of coal-consuming manufacturing plants from State Air Quality and Energy Offices. When new respondents are found, they are added to the survey mailing list. (View Form EIA-3 and instructions at http://www.eia.doe.gov/cneaf/coal/page/surveys/formeia-3.pdf)
Annual Coal Quality Report - Manufacturing Plants (Form EIA-3A)
Form EIA-3A contains questions on the origin of coal (State or country), the quantity of coal receipts, the Btu, sulfur and ash content of the coal receipts, and the basis used to determine the coal quality data. The threshold for the annual collection is manufacturing plants that consume in excess of 1,000 short tons of coal per year.(View Form EIA-3A and instructions at http://www.eia.doe.gov/cneaf/coal/page/surveys/formeia-3a.pdf)
Coke Plant Report (Form EIA-5)
Form EIA-5, a quarterly report of coal receipts, carbonization, and stocks, and of coke and breeze production, distribution, and stocks, is used to survey all U.S. coke plants. The respondent list for this survey is updated by continuous monitoring of the industry literature. Current year data from this survey are preliminary and unrevised in the January - March, April - June, and July - September issues of the Quarterly Coal Report (DOE/EIA-0121). In the October - December issue, any revisions necessary for the entire year are applied and the data are considered final. (View Form EIA-5 and instructions http://www.eia.doe.gov/cneaf/coal/page/surveys/formeia-5.pdf)
Annual Coal Quality Report - Coke Plants (Form EIA-5A)
Form EIA-5A is an annual survey, which collects data on the origin of coal (State or country), the quantity of coal receipts, the volatile matter, sulfur and ash content, and the basis used to determine the coal quality data. There is no threshold for this form. Current year data from this survey are considered final in the Coal Industry Annual (DOE/EIA-0584). (View Form EIA-5A and instructions at http://www.eia.doe.gov/cneaf/coal/page/surveys/formeia5a.pdf)
Coal Distribution Report (Form EIA-6A)
Form EIA-6A is an annual survey of all U.S. companies (producers and/or distributors) that own or purchase and distribute more than 50,000 short tons of coal annually. For the States of Arkansas, Maryland, Oklahoma, and the anthracite portion of Pennsylvania, the threshold is 10,000 short tons annually. Data on coal production and purchases, distribution by consumer category, and method of transportation are reported. The data gathered on the Form EIA-6A represent only the domestic coal distributed; therefore, imported coal distributed during the year is not included.
The respondent list for this survey is updated by comparing it with lists of coal producers from the Mine Safety and Health Administration, U.S. Department of Labor. Also, new respondents are frequently identified on Form EIA-6A itself when other companies are named as sources of coal purchases. Current year data from this survey are considered final in the Coal Industry Annual (DOE/EIA-0584). (View Form EIA-6A and instructions at http://www.eia.doe.gov/cneaf/coal/page/surveys/formeia6.pdf)
Coal Production Report (Form EIA-7A)
The Energy Information Administration (EIA) began collecting annual coal production data on October 1, 1977. From 1977 through the 1997 data collection cycle, coal production and identification data were collected on Form EIA-7A, "Coal Production Report," from companies that produced, processed, or prepared coal. All other data collected on Form EIA-7A were reported for only those companies that owned a mining operation that produced, processed, or prepared 10,000 short tons or more of coal during the year and preparation plants with 5,000 or more employee hours. Data collected on this form included: coal reserves, coal disposition, value, direct labor hours, number of production days worked, average length of a production shift, average number of miners per shift, average number of shifts per day, and coal bed information (bed name, thickness, coal rank).
Beginning with the 1998 data collection cycle, Form EIA-7A was revised and is used to survey U.S. companies that owned a mining operation that produced, processed, or prepared 10,000 short tons or more of coal during the year and preparation plants with 5,000 or more employee hours. Companies with operations falling under these thresholds are not required to report; however, identification and production data are obtained from the U.S. Department of Labor, Mine Safety and Health Administration (MSHA), Form 7000-2, "Quarterly Mine Employment and Coal Production Report." (See description below.) For mining operations within the threshold, Form EIA-7A collects data on identification, coal beds, reserves, capacity, disposition, and value. Coal production, number of miners and number of employee hours data for these mining operations are obtained from MSHA Form 7000-2. Data from the Form EIA-7A are considered final at the time of publication. (View Form EIA-7A: for mines only at http://www.eia.doe.gov/cneaf/coal/page/surveys/formeia7amine.pdf; for co-located mine and preparation plant/tipple at http://www.eia.doe.gov/cneaf/coal/page/surveys/formeia7atip.pdf; for preparation plant or other facility at http://www.eia.doe.gov/cneaf/coal/page/surveys/formeia7aprep.pdf; instructions at http://www.eia.doe.gov/cneaf/coal/page/surveys/eia7ainst.pdf)
Quarterly Mine Employment and Coal Production Report (MSHA Form 7000-2)
MSHA Form 7000-2 is a quarterly survey of all mining operations in the United States. EIA, through a Cooperative Agreement with MSHA to reduce respondent burden, receives quarterly data on coal production, number of miners and number of employee hours reported for U.S. coal mines. The EIA and MSHA edit these data and incorporate updates reported by the mines during the reporting year. Data from this survey are reported by EIA as quarterly coal production data in the Quarterly Coal Report, and the data are considered by EIA to be final when published in the Coal Industry Annual.
These tables are based on figures supplied by the United States Census Bureau, U.S. Department of Commerce and are subject to revision by the Census Bureau.
Copyright © 2006 Photius Coutsoukis and Information Technology Associates, all rights reserved.