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1051. Passenger Transit Industry--Summary

[Includes Puerto Rico. Includes aggregate information for all transit systems in the United States. Except as noted, prior-to-1985 data exclude commuter railroad, automated guideway, urban ferry boat, and demand response, as well as most transit systems outside of urbanized areas. Data are noncontinuous between 1983 and 1985. Non-transit services such as taxicab, school bus, unregulated jitney, sightseeing bus, intercity bus, and special application mass transportation systems (e.g., amusement parks, airports, island, and urban park ferries are excluded)

 
Item Unit 1980 1981 1982 1983 1984 1985 1986 1987 1988 1989 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998
 
Operating systems Number 1,044 1,035 1,036 1,036 4,938 4,972 5,018 5,047 5,036 5,046 5,078 5,084 5,086 5,088 5,973 5,973 5,973 5,973 6,000
  Motor bus systems Number 1,040 1,030 1,031 1,031 2,604 2,631 2,655 2,671 2,671 2,665 2,688 2,689 2,693 1,934 2,250 2,250 2,250 2,250 2,262
  75,388 76,433 78,205 78,106 96,901
Passenger vehicles, active 1 Number 94,368 98,709 96,127 97,209 92,293 92,961 96,399 102,251 107,316 115,943 115,874 122,362 126,360 128,970
  Motor bus Number 59,411 60,393 62,114 62,093 67,294 64,258 66,218 63,017 62,572 58,919 58,714 60,377 63,080 64,850 68,123 67,107 71,678 72,770 74,641
  Trolley bus Number 823 751 763 686 664 676 680 671 710 725 832 752 907 851 877 885 871 859 880
  Heavy rail Number 9,641 9,749 9,815 9,891 9,083 9,326 10,386 10,168 10,539 10,506 10,419 10,331 10,245 10,261 10,138 10,157 10,201 10,242 10,301
  Light rail Number 1,013 1,075 1,016 1,013 733 717 697 766 831 755 913 1,095 1,058 1,025 1,054 999 1,140 1,229 1,205
  Commuter rail Number 4,500 4,465 4,497 4,423 4,075 4,035 4,440 4,686 4,649 4,472 4,415 4,370 4,413 4,494 4,517 4,565 4,665 4,943 4,907
  Demand response Number (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) 14,164 14,490 15,346 15,944 16,812 15,856 16,471 17,879 20,695 23,527 28,729 29,352 30,804 32,509 32,899
 
Operating funding, total Mil. dol 6,510 7,366 8,044 8,526 11,623 12,195 13,342 14,091 14,537 14,985 16,053 16,533 16,915 17,276 17,968 18,241 19,151 19,515 18,897
  Passenger funding Mil. dol 2,557 2,701 3,077 3,172 4,448 4,575 5,113 5,114 5,225 5,420 5,891 6,037 6,152 6,351 6,756 6,801 7,416 7,546 7,717
  Other operating funding 2 Mil. dol 248 344 380 333 781 702 737 777 841 837 895 767 646 764 2,271 2,812 2,928 3,308 2,875
  Operating assistance Mil. dol 3,705 4,321 4,587 5,022 6,395 6,918 7,491 8,200 8,471 8,728 9,267 9,729 10,117 10,161 8,941 8,628 8,807 8,661 8,305
    Federal Mil. dol 1,094 1,095 1,005 827 996 940 941 955 901 937 970 956 969 966 916 817 596 647 726
    Local 3 Mil. dol 2,611 3,226 3,582 4,195 5,399 4 5,979 4,245 4,681 4,893 4,995 5,327 5,573 5,268 5,491 4,171 3,981 4,129 4,095 3,820
    State 3 Mil. dol (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (4) 2,306 2,565 2,677 2,796 2,970 3,200 3,898 3,704 3,854 3,830 4,082 3,919 3,759
 
Total expense Mil. dol 6,711 7,622 8,314 8,736 12,957 14,077 14,726 15,405 16,442 17,169 17,979 19,332 20,034 20,679 21,653 21,540 22,260 23,159 23,715
  Operating expense Mil. dol 6,247 7,024 7,553 7,956 11,574 12,381 12,952 13,472 14,287 14,972 15,742 16,541 16,781 17,350 17,920 17,849 18,341 18,936 19,249
    Vehicle operations Mil. dol 3,248 3,597 3,882 3,931 5,142 5,655 5,690 5,790 6,052 6,275 6,654 6,727 7,660 7,941 8,212 8,282 8,332 8,602 8,849
    Maintenance Mil. dol 1,774 1,946 2,168 2,392 3,062 3,672 4,029 4,094 4,313 4,493 4,631 4,597 4,831 4,894 5,004 5,047 5,098 5,211 5,443
    General administration Mil. dol 1,224 1,482 1,503 1,634 2,915 2,505 2,748 2,869 3,078 3,251 3,450 3,585 2,674 2,714 2,752 2,590 2,744 2,920 3,013
    Purchased transportation Mil. dol (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) 456 549 484 719 846 953 1,008 1,633 1,616 1,800 1,952 1,930 2,167 2,203 1,944
  Reconciling expense Mil. dol 464 597 761 780 1,383 1,696 1,774 1,933 2,155 2,196 2,237 2,791 3,253 3,329 3,733 3,691 3,919 4,223 4,466
Capital and planning Grants, Federal Mil. dol 2,787 2,946 2,544 3,162 2,922 2,559 3,186 2,522 2,574 2,641 2,428 2,451 2,669 3,516 3,630 5,534 4,180 4,125 4,225
Capital expenditures Million (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) 5,436 5,840 5,833 7,230 7,084 7,850 7,143
 
Vehicle-miles operated 1 Million 2,287 2,325 2,318 2,306 2,750 2,791 2,986 3,055 3,157 3,203 3,242 3,306 3,355 3,435 3,467 3,550 3,650 3,746 3,932
  Motor bus Million 1,677 1,685 1,669 1,678 1,845 1,863 2,002 2,079 2,097 2,109 2,130 2,167 2,178 2,210 2,162 2,184 2,221 2,245 2,291
  Trolley bus Million 13 12 14 15 15 16 15 15 15 15 14 14 14 13 14 14 14 14 14
  Heavy rail Million 385 420 429 408 436 451 476 490 517 532 537 527 525 522 532 537 543 558 566
  Light rail Million 18 17 16 16 17 17 17 18 21 21 24 28 29 28 34 35 38 41 43
  Commuter rail Million 179 176 175 177 168 183 189 189 202 210 213 215 219 224 231 238 242 251 265
  Demand response Million (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) 256 247 275 250 289 300 306 335 364 406 464 507 548 585 698
 
Passengers carried 1 Million 8,567 8,284 8,052 8,203 8,829 8,636 8,777 8,735 8,666 8,931 8,799 8,575 8,501 8,217 7,949 7,763 7,948 8,374 8,746
  Motor bus Million 5,837 5,594 5,324 5,422 5,908 5,675 5,753 5,614 5,590 5,620 5,677 5,624 5,517 5,381 4,871 4,848 4,887 5,013 5,387
  Trolley bus Million 142 138 151 160 165 142 139 141 136 130 126 125 126 121 118 119 117 121 117
  Heavy rail Million 2,108 2,094 2,115 2,167 2,231 2,290 2,333 2,402 2,308 2,542 2,346 2,172 2,207 2,046 2,169 2,033 2,157 2,430 2,393
  Light rail Million 133 123 136 137 135 132 130 133 154 162 175 184 188 188 284 251 261 262 275
  Commuter rail Million 280 268 259 262 267 275 306 311 325 330 328 318 314 322 339 344 352 357 382
  Demand response Million (NA) (NA) (NA) (NA) 62 59 63 64 73 70 68 71 72 81 88 88 93 99 95
 
Avg funding per passenger Cents 29.8 32.6 38.2 38.7 50.3 53.0 58.3 58.5 60.3 60.7 66.9 70.4 72.4 77.3 85.0 87.6 93.0 90.1 88.2
Employees, number (avg) 5 1,000 187 192 194 195 263 270 278 277 276 272 273 276 279 299 304 311 327 334 332
Payroll, employee Mil. dol 3,281 3,494 3,731 3,921 5,488 5,843 6,119 6,324 6,675 6,898 7,226 7,395 7,671 7,932 8,224 8,213 8,438 8,772 9078
Fringe benefits, employee Mil. dol 1,353 1,649 1,757 1,977 2,717 2,868 3,126 3,267 3,529 3,737 3,986 3,998 4,319 4,400 4,452 4,484 4,401 4,504 4728


NA Not available.
1 Includes other not shown separately.
2 Beginning 1994, includes taxes levied directly by transit agency and other dedicated funds, formerly included in Local.
3 Includes other operating revenue, nonoperating revenue, and auxiliary income.
4 For 1985, State and local combined.
5 Through 1992, represents employee equivalents of 2,080 hours = one employee; beginning 1993, equals actual employees.

Source: American Public Transportation Association, Washington, DC, Public Transportation Fact Book, annual. http://www.apta.com/stats/index.htm GENERAL

Commuter (APTA)--A person who travels regularly between home and work or school.

Intermodal (APTA)--Those issues or activities which involve or affect more than one mode of transportation, including transportation connections, choices, cooperation and coordination of various modes. Also known as "multimodal."

Mass Transit (APTA)--Another name for "Mass Transportation."

Mass Transportation--Transportation by bus, or rail, or other conveyance, either publicly or privately owned, providing to the public general or special service (but not including school buses or charter or sightseeing service) on a regular and continuing basis. Also known as "mass transit", "public transportation", and "transit".

Multimode Transit Agency (APTA)--A transit agency operating more than one mode of service.

Multimodal (APTA)--Another name for "intermodal".

National Transportation System (APTA)--An intermodal system consisting of all forms of transportation in a unified, interconnected manner to reduce energy consumption and air pollution while promoting economic development and supporting the Nation's preeminent position in international commerce. The NTS includes the National Highway System (NHS), public transportation and access to ports and airports.

Public Transit Agency--A public entity responsible for administering and managing transit activities and services. Public transit agencies can directly operate transit service or contract out for all or part of the total transit service provided.

Public Transportation (APTA)--Another name for "Mass Transportation".

Reverse Commuting (APTA)--Movement in a direction opposite the main flow of traffic, such as from the central city to a suburb during the morning peak period.

Ridesharing (APTA)--A form of transportation, other than a transit agency, in which more than one person shares the use of the vehicle, such as a van or car, to make a trip. Also known as "carpooling" or "vanpooling."

Transit (APTA)--Another name for "Mass Transportation."

Transit Agency (APTA)--An entity (public or private) responsible for administering and managing transit activities and services. Transit agencies can directly operate transit service or contract out for all or part of the total transit service provided.

GEOGRAPHY

Urban Place (APTA)--A U.S. Bureau of the Census-designated area (less than 50,000 population) consisting of closely settled territory not populous enough to form an urbanized area.

Urbanized Area (UZA)--An area (50,000 or more population) so designated by the U.S. Bureau of the Census.

INFRASTRUCTURE

Accessible Station--A public transportation passenger facility which provides ready access, is usable, and does not have physical barriers that prohibit and/or restrict access by individuals with disabilities, including individuals who use wheelchairs.

Bus Lane (APTA)--Another name for "Busway".

Busway--A roadway reserved for buses only. It may be a grade separated or controlled access roadway. Also known as "Bus Lane".

Commuter Lane (APTA)--Another name for "High-Occupancy Vehicle Facility."

Contraflow Lane (APTA)--Reserved lane for buses on which the direction of bus traffic is opposite to the flow of traffic on the other lanes.

Controlled Access Right-of-Way--Lanes restricted for at least a portion of the day for use by transit vehicles and/or other high occupancy vehicles. Use of controlled access lanes may also be permitted for vehicles preparing to turn. The restriction must be sufficiently enforced so that 95 percent of vehicles using the lanes during the restricted period are authorized to use them.

Exclusive Right-of-Way--Roadway or other right-of-way reserved at all times for transit use and/or other high occupancy vehicles. The restriction must be sufficiently enforced so that 95 percent of vehicles using the right-of-way are authorized to use it.

Fixed Guideway--Any public transportation facility utilizing and occupying a separate right-of-way or rails for the exclusive use of public transportation service including, but not limited to, fixed rail, automated guideway transit, and exclusive facilities for buses and other high-occupancy vehicles; and also means a public transportation facility using a fixed catenary system and right-of-way useable by other forms of transportation.

High-Occupancy Vehicle (HOV) Facility--An exclusive or controlled access right-of-way which is restricted to high occupancy vehicles at all times or for a set period of time. The designation of a HOV facility is determined by state and/or local officials. Also called "busway," "transitway," or "commuter lane."

Kiss and Ride Facility (APTA)--A part of a park and ride facility where commuters who are passengers in non-transit vehicles are dropped off to board a mass transportation vehicle.

Park and Ride Facility--A parking garage and/or pavement used for parking passengers' automobiles, either free or for a fee, while they use transit agency facilities. Park-and-ride facilities are generally established as collector sites for rail or bus service. Park-and-ride facilities may also serve as collector sites for vanpools and carpools, and as transit centers.

Station (APTA)--A public transportation passenger facility.

Transfer Center (APTA)--A fixed location where passengers interchange from one route or vehicle to another.

Transitway (APTA)--Another name for "High-Occupancy Vehicle Facility."

MODES

Aerial Tramway--Unpowered passenger vehicles suspended from a system of aerial cables and propelled by separate cables attached to the vehicle suspension system. The cable system is powered by engines or motors at a central location not on board the vehicle.

Automated Guideway Transit--Guided transit passenger vehicles operating singly or in multi-car trains with a fully automated system (no crew on transit units). Service may be on a fixed schedule or in response to a passenger-activated call button. Automated guideway transit includes personal rapid transit, group rapid transit and people mover systems.

Bus--Rubber-tired vehicles operating on fixed routes and schedules on roadways. Motorbuses are powered by diesel, gasoline, battery or alternative fuel engines contained within the vehicle.

Cable Car--Streetcar type of passenger vehicles operating by means of an attachment to a moving cable located below the street surface and powered by engines or motors at a central location not on board the vehicle.

Carpool (APTA)--An arrangement where two or more people share the use and cost of privately owned vehicles in traveling together to and from pre-arranged destinations.

Commuter Rail--Long-haul rail passenger service operating between metropolitan and suburban areas, whether within or across the geographical boundaries of a state, usually characterized by reduced fares for multiple rides, and commutation tickets for regular, recurring riders. Also known as "regional rail" or "suburban rail."

Demand Response--Passenger cars, vans or buses with fewer than 25 seats operating in response to calls from passengers or their agents to the transit operator, who then dispatches a vehicle to pick up the passengers and transport them to their destinations. A demand response operation is characterized by the following: (a) The vehicles do not operate over a fixed route or on a fixed schedule except, perhaps, on a temporary basis to satisfy a special need; and (b) typically, the vehicle may be dispatched to pick up several passengers at different pick-up points before taking them to their respective destinations and may even be interrupted en route to these destinations to pick up other passengers. The following types of operations fall under the above definitions provided they are not on a scheduled fixed route basis: Many origins-many destinations, many origins-one destination, one origin-many destinations, and one origin-one destination. Also called "Dial-a-Ride" and "Paratransit."

Dial-a-Ride (APTA)--Another name for "Demand Response."

Ferryboat--Vessels carrying passengers and/or vehicles over a body of water. The vessels are generally steam or diesel-powered conventional ferry vessels. They may also be hovercraft, hydrofoil and other high speed vessels.

Fixed-Route (APTA)--Service provided on a repetitive, fixed-schedule basis along a specific route with vehicles stopping to pick up and deliver passengers to specific locations; each fixed-route trip serves the same origins and destinations, unlike demand response. Includes route deviation service, where revenue vehicles deviate from fixed routes on a discretionary basis.

Heavy Rail--High-speed, passenger rail cars operating singly or in trains of two or more cars on fixed rails in separate rights-of-way from which all other vehicular and foot traffic are excluded. Also known as "rapid rail," "subway," "elevated (railway)," or metropolitan railway (metro).

Inclined Plane--Special tramway type of vehicles operating up and down slopes on rails via a cable mechanism so that passenger seats remain horizontal while the undercarriage (truck) is angled parallel to the slope.

Jitney--Passenger cars or vans operating on fixed routes (sometimes with minor deviations) as demand warrants without fixed schedules or fixed stops.

Light Rail--Lightweight passenger rail cars operating singly (or in short, usually two-car, trains) on fixed rails in right-of-way that is not separated from other traffic for much of the way. Light rail vehicles are driven electrically with power being drawn from an overhead electric line via a trolley or a pantograph. Also known as "streetcar," "tramway," or "trolley car."

Metropolitan Railway (APTA)--Another name for "Heavy Rail."

Mode--A transit system category characterized by specific right-of-way, technological and operational features.

Monorail--Guided transit vehicles operating on or suspended from a single rail, beam or tube. Monorail vehicles usually operate in trains.

Non-Fixed-Route (APTA)--Service not provided on a repetitive, fixed-schedule basis along a specific route to specific locations. Demand response is the only non-fixed-route mode.

Paratransit (APTA)--Another name for "Demand Response".

Rapid Rail (APTA)--Another name for "Heavy Rail."

Rapid Transit (APTA)--Rail or motorbus transit service operating completely separate from all modes of transportation on an exclusive right-of-way.

Regional Rail (APTA)--Another name for "Commuter Rail."

Suburban Rail (APTA)--Another name for "Commuter Rail."

Trolleybus--Rubber-tired passenger vehicle operating singly on city streets. Trolleybuses are driven electrically with the power being drawn from an overhead electric line via trolleys. Also known as "trolley coach" or "trackless trolley."

Urban Ferryboat (APTA)--Ferryboats that have at least one terminal within an urbanized area, excluding international, rural, rural interstate, island, and urban park ferries.

Vanpool--Vans and/or buses seating less than 25 persons operating as a voluntary commuter ride sharing arrangement, which provides transportation to a group of individuals traveling directly between their homes and their regular places of work within the same geographical area. The vans should have a seating capacity greater than seven persons, including the driver. It is a mass transit service operated by a public entity, or in which a public entity owns, purchases, or leases the vehicles. Other forms of public participation to encourage ridesharing arrangements such as the provision of parking spaces, utilization of high occupancy vehicle (HOV) lanes, coordination or clearing house service, do not necessarily qualify as public vanpools.

VEHICLES

Accessible Vehicle--Public transportation revenue vehicles which do not restrict access, are usable, and provide allocated space and/or priority seating for individuals who use wheelchairs.

Active Vehicle--The vehicles that are available to operate in revenue service, including vehicles temporarily out of service for routine maintenance and minor repairs.

Aerial Tramway--Unpowered passenger vehicles suspended from a system of aerial cables and propelled by separate cables attached to the vehicle suspension system. The cable system is powered by engines or motors at a central location not on board the vehicle.

Automated Guideway Vehicle--Guided transit passenger vehicles operating under a fully automated system (no crew on transit units).

Bus--Rubber-tired passenger vehicle powered by diesel, gasoline, battery or alternative fuel engine contained within the vehicle.

Types include:

Articulated Bus--Extra-long (54 to 60 feet) bus with the rear body section connected to the main body by a joint mechanism. The joint mechanism allows the vehicle to bend when in operation for sharp turns and curves and yet have a continuous interior. Double Decked Bus--High-capacity bus having two levels of seating, one over the other, connected by one or more stairways. Total bus height is usually 13 to 14.5 feet, and typical passenger seating capacity ranges from 40 to 80 people. Intercity Bus (APTA)--A bus with front door only, separate luggage compartments, and usually with restroom facilities and high-backed seats for use in high-speed long-distance service. Suburban Bus (APTA)--A bus with front doors only, normally with high-backed seats, and without luggage compartments or restroom facilities for use in longer-distance service with relatively few stops. Transit Bus (APTA)--A bus with front and center doors, normally with a rear-mounted engine, low-back seating, and without luggage compartments or restroom facilities for use in frequent-stop service. Trolley Replica Bus (APTA)--A bus with an exterior (and usually an interior) designed to look like a streetcar from the early 1900s.

Cable Car--Streetcar type of passenger vehicle operating by means of an attachment to a moving cable located below the street surface and powered by engines or motors at a central location not on board the vehicle.

Commuter Rail Car--Commuter rail passenger vehicle. There are two types:

Commuter Rail Passenger Coach--Not independently propelled and requiring one or more locomotives for propulsion. Commuter Rail Self-propelled Passenger Car--Not requiring a separate locomotive for propulsion.

Commuter Rail Locomotive--Commuter rail vehicle used to pull or push commuter rail passenger cars. Locomotives do not carry passengers themselves.

Downtown People Mover (APTA)--A type of automated guideway transit vehicle operating on a loop or shuttle route within the central business district of a city.

Ferryboat--Vessel for carrying passengers and/or vehicles over a body of water. The vessel is generally a steam or diesel-powered conventional ferry vessel. It may also be a hovercraft, hydrofoil or other high speed vessel.

Heavy Rail Car--Rail car with motive capability, driven by electric power taken from overhead lines or third rails, configured for passenger traffic and usually operated on exclusive right-of-way.

High Occupancy Vehicle (HOV) (APTA)--Vehicles that can carry two or more persons. Examples of high occupancy vehicles are a bus, vanpool and carpool. These vehicles sometimes have exclusive traffic lanes called "HOV lanes," "busways," "transitways" or commuter lanes.

Inclined Plane Vehicle--Special type of passenger vehicle operating up and down slopes on rails via a cable mechanism.

Light Rail Vehicle--Rail car with motive capability, usually driven by electric power taken from overhead lines, configured for passenger traffic and usually operating on non-exclusive right-of-way. Also known as "streetcar," "tramway," or "trolley car."

Monorail Vehicle--Guided transit passenger vehicle operating on or suspended from a single rail, beam or tube.

Passenger Vehicle (APTA)--A vehicle used to carry passengers in transit service.

Rehabilitation--The rebuilding of revenue vehicles to original specifications of the manufacturer. Rebuilding may include some new components but has less emphasis on structural restoration than would be the case in a remanufacturing operation, focusing on mechanical systems and vehicle interiors.

Streetcar (APTA)--Another name for "Light Rail Vehicle."

Trackless Trolley (APTA)--Another name for "Trolleybus."

Tramway (APTA)--Another name for "Light Rail Vehicle."

Trolley Car (APTA)--Another name for "Light Rail Vehicle."

Trolley Coach (APTA)--Another name for "Trolleybus."

Trolleybus--Rubber-tired electrically powered passenger vehicle operating on city streets drawing power from overhead lines with trolleys. Also known as "trolley coach" or "trackless trolley."

Van--Vehicles having a typical seating capacity of 5 to 15 passengers and classified as a van by vehicle manufacturers. A modified van is a standard van which has undergone some structural changes, usually made to increase its size and particularly its height. The seating capacity of modified vans is approximately 9 to 18 passengers.

OPERATING EXPENSES

Function--A function is the activity performed or cost center of a transit agency. There are four basic functions, as follows:

Vehicle Operations--All activities associated with the subcategories of the vehicle operations function: transportation administration and support; revenue vehicle operation; ticketing and fare collection; and system security. Vehicle Maintenance--All activities associated with revenue and non-revenue (service) vehicle maintenance, including administration, inspection and maintenance, and servicing (cleaning, fueling, etc.) vehicles. In addition, vehicle maintenance includes repairs due to vandalism and accident repairs of revenue vehicles. Non-Vehicle Maintenance--All activities associated with facility maintenance, including: administration; repair of buildings, grounds and equipment as a result of accidents or vandalism; operation of electric power facilities; and maintenance of vehicle movement control systems; fare collection and counting equipment; structures; tunnels and subways; roadway and track; passenger stations; operating station buildings, grounds and equipment; communication systems; general administration buildings, grounds and equipment; and electric power facilities. General Administration--All activities associated with the general administration of the transit agency, including transit service development, injuries and damages, safety, personnel administration, legal services, insurance, data processing, finance and accounting, purchasing and stores, engineering, real estate management, office management and services, customer services, promotion, market research and planning.

Operating Expense--The expenses associated with the operation of the transit agency, and classified by function or activity and the goods and services purchased. It is the sum of "Vehicle Operations," "Vehicle Maintenance," "Non-Vehicle Maintenance," and "General Administration." Alternatively, it is the sum of the various object classes listed below.

Object Class--An object class is a grouping of expenses on the basis of goods and services purchased. Object Classes are as follows:

Salaries and Wages--The pay and allowances due employees in exchange for the labor services they render in behalf of the transit agency. The allowances include payments direct to the employee arising from the performance of a piece of work. Also called "Labor

Labor--Another name for Salaries and Wages

Fringe Benefits--The payments or accruals to others (insurance companies, governments, etc.) on behalf of an employee and payments and accruals direct to an employee arising from something other than a piece of work. These payments are transit agency costs over and above labor costs, but still arising from the employment relationship. Fringe benefits include retirement, pension, medical, dental, life insurance and short-term disability plans; unemployment insurance; workers' compensation insurance; sick, holiday, vacation, and other paid leave; and, uniform and work clothing allowances.

Employee Compensation (APTA)--Sum of "Salaries and Wages" and "Fringe Benefits."

Services--The labor and other work provided by outside organizations for fees and related expenses. In most instances, services from an outside organization are procured as a substitute for in-house employee labor, except in the case of independent audits which could not be performed by employees in the first place. The substitution is usually made because the skills offered by the outside organization are needed for only a short period of time or are better than internally available skills. The charge for these services is usually based on the labor hours invested in performing the service. Services include management service fees, advertising fees, professional and technical services, temporary help, contract maintenance services, custodial services and security services.

Materials and Supplies--The tangible products obtained from outside suppliers or manufactured internally. Freight-in, purchase discounts, cash discounts, sales and excise taxes (except on fuel and lubricants) are to be included in the cost of the material or supply. Charges to these expense accounts will be for the materials and supplies issued from inventory for use and for the materials and supplies purchased for immediate use, i.e., without going through inventory. Three types are:

Fuel and Lubricants--The costs of gasoline, diesel fuel, propane, lubricating oil, transmission fluid, grease, etc., for use in vehicles.

Tires and Tubes--The lease payments for tires and tubes rented on a time period or mileage basis, or the cost of tires and tubes for replacement of tires and tubes on vehicles.

Other Materials and Supplies (APTA)--Materials and supplies other than fuel and lubricants and tires and tubes.

Utilities--The payments made to various utilities for utilization of their resources (e.g., electric, gas, water, telephone, etc.). Utilities include propulsion power purchased from an outside utility company and used for propelling electrically driven vehicles, and other utilities such as electrical power for purposes other than for electrically driven vehicles, water and sewer, gas, garbage collection, and telephone.

Casualty and Liability--The cost elements covering protection of the transit agency from loss through insurance programs, compensation of others for their losses due to acts for which the transit agency is liable, and recognition of the cost of a miscellaneous category of corporate losses. The costs of repairing damaged property are recorded in labor, fringe benefit, material and services object classes. The costs of writing off property damaged beyond repair are recorded in the depreciation object class. The costs of transit agency employees engaged in insuring and processing claims for and against the transit agency are recorded in labor and fringe benefit object classes. Casualty and liability costs include premiums for physical damage insurance, recoveries of physical damage losses, premiums for public liability and property damage insurance, payouts for and recoveries from insured and uninsured public liability and property damage settlements, and premiums for other corporate insurances (e.g., fidelity bonds, business records insurance, etc.).

Purchased Transportation--The payment or accrual to other transit agencies, public or private, for providing transportation service including fare revenues retained by the seller, other expenses incurred by the buyer of service, and other expenses incurred by the seller of service when the purchased transportation agreement pays for only part of the costs.

Other (APTA)--The sum of taxes, miscellaneous, and expense transfers expenses:

Taxes--The taxes levied against the transit agency by Federal, State and Local governments. Sales and excise taxes on materials and services purchased other than fuel and lubricants are not included in this category but are to be accounted for as part of the base price of the material or service. Taxes include income, property, fuel and lubricant, and electric propulsion power taxes; and, vehicle licensing and registration fees.

Miscellaneous Expenses--The expenses which cannot be attributed to any of the other major expense categories.

Expense Transfers--Accounts to be used for reporting adjustments and reclassifications of expenses previously reported. Expense transfers include reclassifications of expenses from one function to another; a composite category of expense encompassing labor, fringe benefits, materials and services used in the transit agency's internal information system to reclassify costs between cost centers and work orders; and, a credit account to be used for adjusting entries transferring expenses to receivables, property, or work-in-process for capital projects.

Depreciation and Amortization--The charges that reflect the loss in service value of the transit agency's assets. Depreciation and amortization include the depreciation of the physical facilities such as guideways, tracks and roadbeds, elevated structures, passenger stations and parking facilities, revenue vehicles, operating stations, and facilities (including buildings, equipment and furnishings) for power generation and distribution, revenue vehicle movement control, data processing, revenue collection and processing, and other general administration. Amortization of the intangible costs of the transit agency includes organization costs, franchises, patents, goodwill and other intangible assets.

Other Reconciling Items (APTA)--All other expenses in addition to "Total Operating Expense" and "Depreciation and Amortization" including interest expense, leases and rentals, purchase lease payments, related parties lease agreements, and any other costs.

Total Expense (APTA)--The sum of "Total Operating Expense," "Depreciation and Amortization," and "Other Reconciling Items."

OPERATING FUNDING

Operating Funding Source (APTA)--Funds used to pay for operating expense.

Government Funds (APTA)--Funds provided by federal, state, and/or local governments. For some purposes, also includes directly generated taxes, tolls, fees, and other imposed funding sources.

Federal Funds--Financial assistance from the federal government to assist in paying the operating costs of providing transit service. State Funds--Financial assistance from a state government(s) to assist with paying the operating costs of providing transit service. Local Funds--Financial assistance from local governments (below the state level) to help cover the operating costs of providing transit service.

Directly Generated Funds--Any funds generated by or donated directly to the transit agency, including passenger fares, advertising revenues, donations and grants from private foundations. Directly generated funds also include directly levied taxes and other funds dedicated to transit, such as development fees where the transit agency has the legal authority to impose the development fees.

Passenger Fares--The revenue earned from carrying passengers in regularly scheduled service. Passenger fares include the base fare, zone premiums, express service premiums, extra cost transfers and quantity purchase discounts applicable to the passenger's ride. They also include revenues earned but paid for by some organization rather than the rider, and for rides given along special routes for which revenue may be guaranteed by a beneficiary of the service. They include revenue from services operated directly by the transit agency as well as service operated by purchased transportation contractors.

Adult Base Cash Fare (APTA)--Minimum cash fare paid by an adult for one transit ride; excludes transfer charges, zone or distance charges, express service charges, peak period surcharges, and reduced fares. Passenger Fares Received per Unlinked Passenger Trip (APTA)--"Passenger Fares" divided by "Unlinked Passenger Trips." Peak Period Surcharge (APTA)--An extra fee required during peak periods (rush hours). Transfer Surcharge (APTA)--An extra fee charged for a transfer to use when boarding another transit vehicle to continue a trip. Zone or Distance Surcharge (APTA)--An extra fee charged for crossing a predetermined boundary.

Other Operating Funds (APTA)--The sum of school bus service revenues, freight tariffs, charter service revenues, auxiliary transportation revenues, non-transportation revenues, revenue accrued through a purchased transportation agreement, and subsidy from other sectors of operations:

School Bus Service Revenues--The revenue earned operating vehicles under school bus contracts. School bus service is the operation of buses exclusively to carry school passengers to and from their schools. Freight Tariffs--The revenue earned from carrying all types of freight on runs whose primary purpose is passenger operations. Charter Service Revenues--The revenue earned operating vehicles under charter contracts. Charter service is the operation of vehicles hired for exclusive use and that do not operate over a regular route, on a regular schedule and are not available to the general public. Auxiliary Transportation Revenues--The revenue earned from operations closely associated with transportation operations. Revenue includes station concessions, vehicle concessions, advertising and automotive vehicle ferriage. Non-Transportation Revenues--The revenue earned from activities not associated with the provision of transit service. Non-transportation revenues include revenues earned from sales of maintenance service on property not owned or used by the transit agency, rentals of revenue vehicles to other operators, rentals of transit agency buildings and property to other organizations, parking fees generated from parking lots not normally used as park and ride locations, and donations. Revenue Accrued through a Purchased Transportation Agreement--Revenue accrued by a seller of transportation services through purchased transportation agreements. These are the contract revenues earned (payments and accruals) by a transit agency under contract to another transit agency or governmental unit. Subsidy from Other Sectors of Operations--The funds obtained from other sectors of a transit agency's operations to help cover the cost of providing transit services.

CAPITAL EXPENSES

Capital Expense--The expenses related to the purchase of tangible property or other items eligible to be capitalized (e.g., vehicle tire leasing). Property includes tangible assets with an expected service life of more than one year at the time of their installation, and a unit cost greater than $1,000. Generally, these are any items eligible as a capital expense under federal, state or local requirements.

Rolling Stock--The revenue vehicles used in providing transit service for passengers. The term revenue vehicles includes the body and chassis and all fixtures and appliances inside or attached to the body or chassis, except fare collection equipment and revenue vehicle movement control equipment (radios). For rubber-tired vehicles, it includes the cost of one set of tires and tubes to make the vehicle operational, if the tires and tubes are owned by the transit agency.

Facilities--The following items are facility and facility-related projects: construction of maintenance facilities (including design and engineering, demolition, etc.); rehabilitation of maintenance facilities (including design and engineering, land acquisition, relocation, etc.); crime prevention and security equipment; purchase or installation of service and support equipment; operational support (computer hardware and software, bus diagnostic equipment, and other activities that enhance system operations and efficiency while reducing operating costs); transit malls, transfer facilities, intermodal terminals, shelters, passenger stations, depots, terminals, HOV facilities, transit ways, and park-and-ride facilities; and track; line equipment and structures; signals and communications; and power equipment and substations.

Other--Any other item not described above, such as service vehicles, construction of general administration facilities, furniture, equipment that is not an integral part of buildings and structures, data processing equipment (including computers and peripheral devices whose sole use is in data processing operations), fare collection equipment, and revenue vehicle movement control equipment.

CAPITAL FUNDING

Capital Funding Source (APTA)--Funds used to pay for capital expense.

Government Funds (APTA)--Funds provided by federal, state, and/or local governments. For some purposes, also includes directly generated taxes, tolls, fees, and other imposed funding sources.

Federal Funds--Financial assistance from the federal government to assist in paying the capital costs of providing transit service. State Funds--Financial assistance from a state government(s) to assist with paying the capital costs of providing transit service. Local Funds--Financial assistance from local governments (below the state level) to help cover the capital costs of providing transit service.

Directly Generated Funds--Any funds generated by or donated directly to the transit agency, including passenger fares, advertising revenues, donations and grants from private foundations. Directly generated funds also include directly levied taxes and other funds dedicated to transit, such as development fees where the transit agency has the legal authority to impose the development fees.

EMPLOYEES

Capital Employee--The employee labor hours whose cost is reimbursed under a capital grant or is otherwise capitalized.

Operating Employee--The employees engaged in the operation of the transit system. They are:

General Administration Employee--Executive, professional, supervisory, and secretarial transit system personnel engaged in general management and administration activities: preliminary transit system development, customer services, promotion, market research, injuries and damages, safety, personnel administration, general legal services, general insurance, data processing, finance and accounting, purchasing and stores, general engineering, real estate management, office management and services, general management, and planning. Non-Vehicle Mainenance Employee--Executive, professional, supervisory, and secretarial transit system personnel engaged in non-vehicle maintenance, personnel providing maintenance support to such personnel for inspecting, cleaning, repairing and replacing all components of: vehicle movement control systems; fare collection and counting equipment; roadway and track; structures, tunnels, and subways; passenger stations; communication system; and garage, shop, operating station, general administration buildings, grounds and equipment. In addition, it includes support for the operation and maintenance of electric power facilities. Other Vehicle Operations Employee--Executive, professional, and supervisory transit system personnel engaged in vehicle operations, personnel providing support in vehicle operations activities, personnel engaged in ticketing and fare collection activities, and personnel engaged in system security activities. Vehicle Mainenance Employee--Executive, professional, secretarial, and supervisory transit system personnel engaged in vehicle maintenance, personnel performing inspection and maintenance, vehicle maintenance of vehicles, performing servicing functions for revenue and service vehicles, and repairing damage to vehicles resulting from vandalism or accidents. Vehicle Operator--The personnel (other than security agents) scheduled to be aboard vehicles in revenue operations including vehicle operators, conductors, and ticket collectors.

PASSENGERS

Average Trip Length (APTA)--Passenger miles divided by unlinked passenger trips.

Passenger Miles--The cumulative sum of the distances ridden by each passenger.

Revenue Passenger Trips (APTA)--The number of fare-paying transit passengers with each person counted once per trip; excludes transfer and non-revenue trips.

Unlinked Passenger Trips--The number of passengers who board public transportation vehicles. A passenger is counted each time he/she boards a vehicle even though he/she may be on the same journey from origin to destination.

SERVICE PROVIDED

Average Speed (APTA)--Vehicle miles divided by vehicle hours.

Directional Route Miles--The mileage in each direction over which public transportation vehicles travel while in revenue service. Directional route miles are a measure of the facility or roadway, not the service carried on the facility, i.e., number of routes or vehicle revenue miles. Directional route miles are computed with regard to direction of service, but without regard to the number of traffic lanes or rail tracks existing in the right-of-way.

Miles of Track--The number of tracks per one-mile segment of right-of-way. Miles of track are measured without regard to whether or not rail traffic can flow in only one direction on the track. All track is counted, including yard track.

Total Bus Mile Equivalents (APTA)--The number of vehicle miles that would have been operated by a transit mode if the service had been provided by motor buses. Based on average seating plus standing capacity of the vehicle as compared to the capacity including standees (70 people) of a standard-size motorbus.

Vehicle Hours--The hours a vehicle travels while in revenue service (vehicle revenue hours) plus deadhead hours. For rail vehicles, vehicle hours refer to passenger car hours. Vehicle hours exclude hours for charter services, school bus service, operator training and maintenance testing.

Vehicle Miles--The miles a vehicle travels while in revenue service (vehicle revenue miles) plus deadhead miles. For rail vehicles, vehicle miles refer to passenger car miles. Vehicle miles exclude miles for charter services, school bus service, operator training and maintenance testing.



https://allcountries.org/uscensus/1051_passenger_transit_industry_summary.html

These tables are based on figures supplied by the United States Census Bureau, U.S. Department of Commerce and are subject to revision by the Census Bureau.

Copyright © 2006 Photius Coutsoukis and Information Technology Associates, all rights reserved.